From Trade To Territory
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From Trade To Territory. module. 1 east india company 2 expansion of company rule 3 new administration. POINTS. Aurangzeb was the last powerful Mughal ruler. ( died in 1707 ) Bahadur Shah Zafar was forced to leave the kingdom in 1857.

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From Trade To Territory

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From trade to territory

From Trade To Territory


Module

module

  • 1 east india company

  • 2 expansion of company rule

  • 3 new administration


Points

POINTS

  • Aurangzeb was the last powerful Mughal ruler. ( died in 1707 )

  • Bahadur Shah Zafar was forced to leave the kingdom in 1857.

  • In 1600 East India Company acquired a charter from the ruler of England.

  • Mercantile companies in those days primarily to make more profit.


From trade to territory

MUGHAL EMPEROR AURANGZEB

  • BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR


From trade to territory

  • ENGLAND RULER-QUEEN ELIZABETH 1


Points1

POINTS

  • The sea route to India was discovered by Vasco Da Gama in 1498.

  • Afterwards French came to trade in India.

  • Fine quality silk and cotton was produced in India.

  • In 17th to 18th century the traders sank each other's ship.

  • Effort to fortify settlements and carry profitable trade led to conflict amongst local rulers


From trade to territory

  • Vasco Da Gama


From trade to territory

  • THE SEA ROUTE


From trade to territory

BATTLE OF PLASSEY: 

BATTLE OF PLASSEY Robert Clive British soldier and statesman Robert Clive was responsible for breaking French control in parts of India and establishing British influence after his victory at the battle of Plessey in 1757. He became the first governor of Bengal in 1765.


From trade to territory

BATTLE OF PLASSEY


From trade to territory

On 23rd June, 1757 both the armies of Bengal's Anwar Sirajudaulah & British East India Company stood face to face with each other in Plessey. Anwar's forces were lead by his trusted lieutenant Mir Madam whereas the British Forces were led by Robert Clive. Clive's British troops consisted of 800 European, 2000 Indian and 200 Artillery men. Whereas Anwar was leading a 50,000 strong army with 53 canons. On the other hand Clive had only six pounder and two howitzer class canons. Looking at the figures it seemed that Anwar was in a far more stronger position than Clive but Anwar also had Mir Jafar, who betrayed at a time when the battle was poised for a interesting turn. Overnight rainfall had made the Nawab's artillery unfit for use. So Mir Madan thinking that Clive's artillery would too be in the same state attacked the British garrison but Clive's foresight had saved the British artillery form the incessant rainfall. So Mir Madan had to face the music, he himself was injured. He was replaced with Mir Jafar, who later betrayed and joined forces with Clive. By five-o-clock in the evening Clive had captured Sirajudaulah who was later deported. Mir Jafar was made the Nawab of Bengal but with limited power. In fact Battle of Plassey proved to be the very foundation stone for the mighty British Empire in India


From trade to territory

BATTLE OF BUXAR: 

BATTLE OF BUXAR The armies of Mir Kasim and his allies Emperor Shah Alam II and Shuja-ud-daula, Nawab of Avadh, out-matched the British in number. To Mir Kasim's force of 40,000 Robert Clive's army commanded by Major Hector Munro had about 18,000 men. Early on, East India Company forces had to retreat across the river. But they were allowed to get away; the forces retreat across the river. But they were allowed to get away; the forces regrouped and through a naval force attacked through the river route. Mir Jafar also had trained Afghan cavalry and modern cannon manned by European mercenaries and led a charge on the Company's forces. However, the Company relied on its strength of sequenced shooting-its musketeers put up volley of gunfire. This coordinated gun shooting became very much a trademark of the British way of war over the next few decades. The sheer power of gunfire ensured that attacking cavalry scattered. The establishment of British paramountcy along with the diwani(revenue administration) of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa was the major significance of The battle of Buxar .


From trade to territory

SUBSIDIARY ALLIANCE: 

SUBSIDIARY ALLIANCE According to the terms of this alliance , Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces. They were to be protected by the company, but had to pay for the “Subsidiary forces” that the company was supposed to maintain for the purpose of this protection. If Indian rulers failed to make the payment, then part o0f their territory was taken away as penalty.


From trade to territory

Tipu Sultan 1782-1789: 

* Tipu Sultan 1782-1789 Steps taken by Tipu Sultan to strength kingdom

* He stopped the export of sandalwood, pepper and cardamom through the port.

* He disallowed local merchants from trading with the company.

* He established factory to produce modern war tools and weapons.

* He also established a close relationship with the French in India, and modernized his army with their help.


From trade to territory

Challenge of paramount Policy: 

1.Challenge of paramount Policy RaniChannamma and Rayanna of Kitoor in Karnataka.

2.War with Afghanistan. 1838 – 1842. and established indirect company rule.

3. 1843 – Sind was taken over.

4. Anglo Sikh War - In 1849, Punjab was annexed.

The Doctrine of Lapse. Lord Dalhousie 1848-1856.: 

The Doctrine of Lapse. Lord Dalhousie 1848-1856. The Doctrine declared that if an Indian ruler died without a male heir his kingdom would lapse, that is, become part of company territory. Under this policy following kingdoms annexed. 1848 – Satara.

1850 - Sambalpur.

1852 - Udaipur.

1853 – Nagpur.

1854 - Jhansi.

1856 - Awadh.


Points2

POINTS

  • The 1st factory of East India Company was set up on the banks of river Hughli in 1651.

  • By 1696 it began building forts around the settlements.

  • Kolkata was first Kalikata ,then Calcutta and afterwards became Kolkata.

  • Farman is a royal edict, royal order.

  • At that time Murshid Quli Khan was the Nawab of Bengal


From trade to territory

  • LOCAL BOATS CARRYING GOODS FROM MADRAS


From trade to territory

  • MURSHID QULI KHAN


Points3

POINTS

  • After Aurangzeb's death the Bengal Nawabs asserted their power and autonomy

  • Murshid Quli Khan was followed by Alivardi Khan and then by Sirajuddaulah as the Nawab of Bengal.

  • The conflicts led to confrontations and finally culminated in the famous battle of Plassey.


From trade to territory

  • ALIVARDI KHAN


From trade to territory

  • SIRAJUDDAULAH KHAN


Points4

POINTS

  • Alivardi khan died in 1756 , Sirajddaulah became the Nawab of Bengal.

  • Sirajddaulah marched 30,000 soldiers to the English factory at Kassimbazar ,captured the company officials, locked the warehouse, disarmed all Englishmen and blockaded English ships.

  • Finally in 1757 Robert Clive led the company's army against Sirajddaulah at Plassey.


From trade to territory

  • ROBERT CLIVE


Points5

POINTS

  • Robert Clive promised Mir Jafar that if he wins the battle against Sirajddaulah he will make him the Nawab of Bengal.

  • Sirajddaulah was assassinated and Mir Jafar was made the Nawab.

  • Mir Jafar was deposed because he was protesting for dignity and sovereignty and hence was replaced by Mir Qasim.

  • Mir Qasim lost the war at Buxar in 1764 and Mir Jafar was reinstalled.


From trade to territory

  • MIR JAFAR

  • MIR QASIM


Points6

POINTS

  • In 17th-18th century Nawabs had to pay 5,00,000 rupees.

  • Mir Jafar died in 1765. And Clive declared -"We must indeed become Nawabs ourselves"

  • Clive collected 401,102 pounds of Indian fortune.

  • Robert Clive committed suicide in 1774.

  • "Nabobs is an English word for Nawab.


From trade to territory

  • TIPU SULTAN

  • TIPU'S TOY TIGER


Points7

POINTS

  • Richard Wellesley had to pay a little part of his territory as a penalty.

  • Haider Ali was the ruler of Mysore from 1761 to 1782.

  • Tipu Sultan stopped the export of sandalwood, pepper and cardamom.

  • Haider and Tipu together were ambitious , arrogant and dangerous.


From trade to territory

  • RICHARD WELLESLEY


From trade to territory

  • HAIDER ALI


From trade to territory

  • CORNWALLIAS RECEIVING THE SONS OF TIPU SULTAN AS HOSTAGES.


From trade to territory

  • CORNWALLIS


Points8

POINTS

  • From the late 18th century British also wanted to destroy Maratha power.

  • MahadjiSindhia and Nana Phandis were two famous Maratha soldiers who fought the battle in Panipat.

  • Finally in 1817-19 Britishers crushed the Marathas.

  • A new policy "Paramountcy" was initiated by Lord Hastings.


From trade to territory

  • MAHADJI SINDHIA

  • NANA PHANDIS


From trade to territory

  • LORD HASTINGS


Points9

POINTS

  • In late 13th century East India Company began worrying about Russia.

  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh died in 1839.

  • Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General from 1848 to 1856.

  • In 1856 the company took over Awadh.

  • Warren Hastings was one of the many Important figures who played a significant role in company power expansion.


From trade to territory

  • MAHARAJA RANJIT SINGH

  • LORD DALHOUSIE


From trade to territory

  • WARREN HASTINGS


Points10

POINTS

  • From 1772 a new system of justice was established.

  • Qazi is a word for court judge.

  • In 1775 eleven pandits were asked to compile a digest of Hindu laws.

  • Sawars are trained soldiers on horseback.

  • The cavalry requirements of the company's army declined.


From trade to territory

  • THE TRIAL OF WARREN HASTINGS


Points11

POINTS

  • In the early 19th century the British began to develop a uniform military culture.

  • British empire was fighting in Burma, Afghanistan and Egypt where soldiers were armed with muskets and matchlocks.

  • The Revolt of 1857 gives us a glimpse in to the world of sepoys.


Questions

QUESTIONS

Q1.In which year did Aurangzeb die?

Q2.Who discovered the sea route in India to and when?

Q3. Kolkata was first Kalikata then_______

and afterwards Kolkata.

Q4.Alivardi Khan died in which year?

Q5.In 1856 the company took over ________.


From trade to territory

What attracted European trading companies to India

Explain the system of subsidiary alliance

How did the assumption of diwani benefit the east india company

Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the company's army


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