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Tutorial 9, Week 11 Singlish & Contact Linguistics. Hoseh La! Jesslyn Oh | Ng Wanting | Ong Yu Ann | Tan Xi Ping. Question 1 . Question 1 Part 1. Contact Linguistics and Singapore English. Pidgin (Formal Definition by Robert Hall). Life Cycle of Pidgin Languages

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Tutorial 9, Week 11

Singlish & Contact Linguistics

Hoseh La!

Jesslyn Oh | Ng Wanting | Ong Yu Ann | Tan Xi Ping



Question 1 Part 1

Contact Linguistics and Singapore English

  • Pidgin

  • (Formal Definition by Robert Hall)

Life Cycle of Pidgin Languages

Minimally-functional contact languages that originate from casual, short-term contact between groups that do not share a common language

Borrow words and grammar from either languages for minimal comprehension between speakers

May disappear once practicality wanes

‘Makeshift’ or ‘Minimal’ languages

Contact vernaculars with short survival period


Question 1 Part 1

Contact Linguistics and Singapore English

Alexishafen (Papua New Guinea)

A variant of Pacific pidgins

Developed through illiterate offsprings of convict settlements in Australia

Uses ‘clumsy and ugly’ perversions of English originals

  • Pidgin

  • Example 1


Question 1 Part 1

Contact Linguistics and Singapore English

Chinglish (China)

Variety of English used by Chinese speakers

Incorporate Chinese vocabulary or constructions and English terms specific to a Chinese context

Lingua franca for trade between the British and mostly Cantonese-speaking Chinese people

Declined in the late 19th Century when schools taught standard English

  • Pidgin

  • Example 2


Question 1 Part 1

Contact Linguistics and Singapore English

  • Pidgin

  • Example 2


Question 1 Part 1

Contact Linguistics and Singapore English

Originally a pidgin

Claimed by a community of speakers as their native language

Usually arises from the children of pidgin speakers, becomes their mother tongue

Full-fledged language capable of serving the intellectual, psychological and social needs of its speakers

Designated language(s) of people of Caribbean and African descent in colonial and ex-colonial countries (Jamaica, Haiti, Mauritius, Hawaii, etc)

  • Creole

  • Definition


Question 1 Part 1

Contact Linguistics and Singapore English

Haitian-Creole (West Africa)

Developed by enslaved West Africans who were brought to Haiti by European settlers

Creolized when children of enslaved West Africans, born in Haiti, adopted it as their mother tongue

A result of contact between European romance languages and various Central and West African languages

Distinctly unique grammar from other French Creoles of the world

  • Creole

  • Example 1


Question 1 Part 1

Structural Difference between Pidgin and Creole

Hawaiian Creole English


Question 1 Part 1

Pidgin and Creole Versions of Identical Sentences in Hawaii

Hawaiian Creole English


Question 1 Part 2A

Singapore English as a…

  • Creoloid


Question 1 Part 2A

Singapore English as a…

Its use for inter-ethnic as well as intra-ethnic communication, coupled with its status as either first, second or third language in the speaker’s repertoire, means it is not compatible with the usual concept of a creole.

  • Creoloid VS

  • Creole


Question 1 Part 2B

Contact Linguistics and Singapore English

  • Linguistic

  • Ecology

Study of interactions between any given language and its environment

Includes social and natural environments

No. of languages in contact with one another


Question 1 Part 2B

Differences in linguistic environments


Question 2

Still Ho SehBoh?


Question 2

NP Ellipsis and Substratist Explanation

NP Ellipses refers to the omission of noun phrases such as subjects, objects and possessors.

Mandarin

Hokkien

Singlish

The Substratist approach proposes that NP ellipses in Singlish originates from the indigenous languages spoken in Singapore.

Malay

Cantonese


Question 2a (Subject Omission)

After Ø get some sickness, Ø can’t help it

After one gets sick, one cannot help it.

  • Mandarin

  • Hokkien

  • Cantonese

生病了,没办法。Sheng bing le, mei ban fa.

Puahpinnliao, bohbianlor.

M shifok, mou ban fattlor.

‘Ø Get sick already (la), nothing can be done (lor).’

YES LA BOTH LA!

  • Malay

Kalau dah sakit, dah takbolehbuatapa-apa.

‘If Ø already sick, Ø already cannot do anything.’


Question 2b (Object Omission)

‘I never try Ø before la’

I have never tried it before.

  • Mandarin

  • Hokkien

  • Cantonese

我没试过啦。Womeishiguo la.

Wa boh qi ge.

Ngohmeisigor.

‘I never try Ø before (la).’

Betul!

Kedua-dua!

  • Malay

Aku tak pernah cuba.

‘I n-ever tried Ø.’


Question 2c (Possessor Omission)

‘Ø Head very pain’

My head is painful.

  • Mandarin

  • Hokkien

  • Cantonese

头好痛 。Touhao tong.

Tao jintia.

Tao hou tong.

‘Ø Head very pain.’

对!都有!

  • Malay

Kepalabanyaksakit.

‘Ø Head very pain.’



Question 3

Discourse Particle

“but, therefore, in conclusion, to the contrary, still, however, anyway, well, besides, actually, all in all, so, after all” (Levinson 1983:87-88)

“well, hey, okay, oh, like, y’know, now, say, why, look, listen, please, uh, ouch, gosh, holy cow” (Zwicky 1985)

“oh, well, but, and, or, so, because, now, then, I mean, y’know, see, look, listen, here, there, why, gosh, boy, this is the point, what I mean is, anyway, whatever” (Schiffrin 1987)

  • Examples from researchers

“but, therefore, in conclusion, to the contrary, still, however, anyway, well, besides, actually, all in all, so, after all” (Levinson 1983:87-88)

“well, hey, okay, oh, like, y’know, now, say, why, look, listen, please, uh, ouch, gosh, holy cow” (Zwicky 1985)

“oh, well, but, and, or, so, because, now, then, I mean, y’know, see, look, listen, here, there, why, gosh, boy, this is the point, what I mean is, anyway, whatever” (Schiffrin 1987)

HAH?


Question 3

Discourse Particle

  • Examples from

  • Singlish


Question 3a

There’s something here for everyone lah.

  • Function 1:

  • Appeal for Accomodation

Context: “I really like this shopping centre ‘cause there’s something here for everyone lah.”

Example: “No use trying to hide our roots lah.

We are Singaporeans.”

  • Function 2:

  • Convey Obviousness

Context: “Why do you like this place?” “There’s something here for everyone lah!”

Example: “What language do they speak in Singapore?” “Singaporeans speak Singlishlah!”


Question 3b

No car parks here, what.

No car parks here, what.

  • Function 1:

  • Contradiction/ Rebuttal

Context: “I can park here right?” “No car parks here what!”

Example: “I am American.” “You are Singaporean what!”

  • Function 2:

  • Convey Annoyance

Context: “I can park here right?” (x10) “No car parks here what!!”

Example: “I tell you already what!”


Question 3c

No car parks here, what.

This shopping centre very nice hor.

  • Function 1:

  • Garner support for proposition

Context: “This shopping centre very nice hor. Do you agree?”

Example: “Today’s tutorial is too easy hor. Do you think so?”

  • Function 2:

  • Expect hearer to accept your views

Context: “Why did you bring me to this ulu place?” “This shopping centre very nice hor!”

Example: “Don’t expect me to treat. I am broke hor!”


Question 3d

No car parks here, what.

You don’t like that one meh?

  • Function 1:

  • Indicate surprise

Context: “I thought you like that one? You don’t like that one meh?”

Example: “The EL1101E final exam is held tomorrow, you don’t know meh?”

  • Function 2:

  • Convey doubt

Context: “That shirt is ugly, I hate it.” “I think that is nice, not nice meh?”

Example: “Sleeping at 4 am is so early.” “Early meh?”


Question 4

Ownself in CE = 自己’ziji’ in Chinese

NOT THIS OWNSELF LAH!

*Pragmatic Function of lah: signifies obviousness


Question 4

Ownself in CSE = 自己’ziji’ in Chinese

  • Substratist

  • Explanation

Standard English as the superstrate Mandarin as a substrate

Gave rise to the word ‘ownself’


Question 4

Data Analysis (1)


Question 4

Data Analysis (2)

Finding 1:

Pronoun + ownself


Question 4

Data Analysis (3)

Finding 2:

‘Ownself’ can only appear before the verb


Question 4

Data Analysis (4)

Finding 3:

‘Ownself’ can appear before the verb even when a ‘singular self’ occurs after the verb.


Question 4

Ownself in CE = 自己’ziji’ in Chinese

Syntactical use of “Ownself” – precedes the verb

Ownself open door!

Pronoun + ownself

We ownself 我们自己

They ownself 他们自己

Iownself 我自己

No other form of the word (eg. Ownselves)

No plural form

  • Ownself = 自己

  • Therefore, OWNSELF = 自己 (originated from Mandarin) BUT there are syntactical rules guiding its use in Singlish!


The End

HosehLah!

Jesslyn Oh | Ng Wanting | Ong Yu Ann | Tan Xi Ping


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