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CHAPTER 7 RECOGNIZING AUTHORS’ WRITING PATTERNS IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL LEARN:

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CHAPTER 7 RECOGNIZING AUTHORS’ WRITING PATTERNS IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL LEARN: What authors\' writing patterns are and why it is important to be able to recognize them The method for recognizing authors\' writing patterns. What are authors\' writing patterns

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slide1

CHAPTER 7

  • RECOGNIZING AUTHORS’ WRITING PATTERNS
  • IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL LEARN:
    • What authors\' writing patterns are and why it is
    • important to be able to recognize them
    • The method for recognizing authors\' writing
    • patterns
slide2

What are authors\' writing patterns

and why is it important to be able to recognize them?

Writing patterns:

Ways authors organize the information they present.

Writing patterns are also known as organizational patterns,

patterns of development, and thinking patterns.

slide3

Four advantages to recognizing

authors’ writing patterns when you read:

1. Your comprehension will improve.

You will comprehend more because you will be able to follow and understand the writers\' ideas more accurately and more efficiently.

slide4

2. You will be able to predict what is coming next.

As soon as you identify the pattern, you can make predictions about what is likely to come next in a paragraph.

Remember, effective readers are active readers who make logical predictions as they read.

slide5

It will be easier to memorize information

  • when you study.
  • You can memorize information more efficiently when you understand the way it is organized and will also be able to recall it more effectively.
slide6

4. Your writing will improve.

Using these patterns when you write will enable you to write paragraphs that are clearer and better organized. This also means you can write better answers on essay tests simply by using appropriate patterns to organize information.

slide7

What is the method for recognizing

authors\' writing patterns?

The pattern will be determined by the organization of the ideas in the entire paragraph or selection,

not by the presence of a single signal word or clue.

Seeing a word that can be used as a signal for a pattern

does not automatically mean that the entire paragraph

has that pattern.

slide8

The main idea sentence often contains important clues

about which pattern is being used.

After you have read a textbook paragraph, ask yourself the comprehension monitoring question,

“What pattern did the author use to organize

the main idea and the supporting details?”

slide9

List pattern:

  • A group of items presented in no specific order,
  • since the order is unimportant.
  • The list pattern is also known as listing pattern.
slide10

To emphasize or set off separate items in a list,

  • authors often use:
  • Words such as and, also, another, in addition, and moreover.
  • Numbers (1, 2, 3), even when the order of the items is not
  • important. Numbering items in a list is referred to as
  • enumeration.
  • Letters (a, b, c).
  • Bullets (·).
  • Asterisks (*).
  • Certain punctuation marks, such as the colon (:).
  • Phrases in the main idea sentence that suggest that the
  • details will be presented as a list of items.
slide11

Sequence pattern:

A list of items presented in a specific order

because the order is important.

The sequence pattern is also known as

time order, chronological order, a process, or a series.

slide12

To emphasize or set off separate items in a sequence pattern, authors often use:

  • Words such as first, second, third, then, next, finally.
  • Words and phrases that refer to time, such as dates, days
  • of the week, names of months, or phrases such as during
  • the twentieth century or in the previous decade.
  • Enumeration (1, 2, 3).
  • Letters (a, b, c).
  • Signal words such as steps, stages, phases, progression,
  • process, series, and even the word sequence. (These
  • often occur in the main idea sentence.)
slide13

Comparison-contrast pattern:

Similarities (comparisons)

between two or more things are presented,

differences (contrasts)

between two or more things are presented, or both.

The comparison-contrast pattern

is also known as

ideas in opposition.

slide14

To signal comparisons, authors use words such as:

        • similarly
        • likewise
        • both
        • same
        • also
slide15

To signal contrasts, authors use words such as:

  • on the other hand
  • in contrast
  • however
  • while
  • whereas
  • although
  • nevertheless
  • different
  • unlike
  • some … others
slide16

Contrasts are also signaled by words in a paragraph

  • that have opposite meanings, such as:
  • liberals and conservatives
  • Internet users and non-Internet users
  • people who attended college
  • and people who never attended college
slide17

Cause-effect pattern:

  • Reasons (causes) and results (effects)
  • of events or conditions are presented.
  • Authors use these words to indicate a cause:
      • because
      • the reasons
      • causes
      • is due to
      • is caused by
slide18

These words are often used to indicate an effect:

  • therefore
  • consequently
  • thus
  • as a consequence
  • led to
  • the result
  • as a result
  • the effect was
  • this resulted in

In reality, causes always precede effects,

and authors typically present causes first and then their effects.

However, authors sometimes present an effect

and then state its cause.

slide19

Transition words:

Words and phrases that show relationships among ideas in sentences, paragraphs, and longer selections.

Where and how do authors use

transition words in written material?

Many paragraphs and selections begin with a sentence

or paragraph designed to get your attention

or to introduce the topic.

slide20

Some transition words indicate that the author is continuing a train of thought or adding information.

Some transition words indicate that

the author is presenting an opposing view, a contrast,

or an exception.

Some transition words signal to the reader that

the author is presenting causes (reasons things happen)

or effects (the results or outcomes).

Conclusion or summary statements typically appear

at the end of the paragraph or selection.

slide21

Things to keep in mind

  • when recognizing authors\' writing patterns:
  • Lists and sequences differ in an important way.
  • Avoid identifying every paragraph as having a list pattern.
  • Authors sometimes mix patterns in the same paragraph.
  • A longer selection may contain several patterns and have an overall pattern as well.
  • Many textbook paragraphs consist of only a definition and explanation of an important term.
slide22

Summary of Paragraph Pattern Signals and Clue Words

1. List pattern

  • 1, 2, 3 . . .
  • a, b, c . . .
  • bullets (·)
  • asterisks (*)
  • series
  • stages
  • when
  • before, during, after
  • and
  • also
  • another
  • moreover
  • in addition
  • first, ... second, ... third
  • finally
  • at last
  • process
  • spectrum
  • continuum
  • hierarchy
  • instructions and directions

words that announce lists

(such as categories, kinds, types, ways, classes,

groups, parts, elements, characteristics, features, etc.)

slide23

2. Sequence pattern

  • first, … second, … third
  • now
  • then
  • next
  • finally
  • dates
  • 1, 2, 3 . . .
  • a, b, c . . .
  • steps
  • phases
  • progression
  • words that refer to time
slide24

3. Comparison-contrast pattern

  • Comparisons
  • similarly
  • likewise
  • both
  • same
  • also resembles
  • parallels
  • in the same manner
  • in the same way
  • words that compare
    • (adjectives that describe comparisons, such as safer, slower, lighter, more valuable, less toxic, etc.)
  • Contrasts
  • in contrast
  • however
  • on the other hand
  • whereas
  • while
  • although
  • nevertheless
  • instead (of)
  • different
  • unlike
  • conversely
  • rather than
  • as opposed to
  • some . . . others
  • opposite words
slide25

4. Cause-effect pattern

  • Effects
  • the result(s)
  • the effect(s)
  • the outcome
  • the final product
  • therefore
  • thus
  • consequently
  • as a consequence
  • hence
  • on that account
  • resulted in, results in (effect)
  • (effect) was caused by
  • (effect) is due to
  • led to (effect)
  • (effect) resulted from
  • Causes
  • the reason(s)
  • the cause(s)
  • because
  • is due to (cause)
  • was caused by (cause)
  • (cause) led to
  • resulted from (cause)
  • since
slide26

Cause-effect pattern

  • Both the cause and the effect:
    • (effect) is due to (cause)
    • (effect) resulted from (cause)
    • (effect) was caused by (cause)
    • (cause) led to (effect)
    • (cause) results in (effect)
slide27

Some questions that indicate cause-effect:

  • What causes (effect)? (Answer will be the cause)
  • Why does (effect) occur? (Answer will be the cause)
  • What is the reason for (effect)? (Answer will be the cause)
  • How can (effect) be explained? (Answer will be the cause)
  • What does (cause) lead to? (Answer will be the effect)
slide28

AFTER READING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD KNOW:

    • What authors\' writing patterns are and
    • why it is important to be able to recognize them
    • The method for recognizing authors\' writing patterns
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