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Animal Reproduction & Development. What is the advantage of this development system? . Oogenesis. Unequal meiotic divisions unequal distribution of cytoplasm 1 egg 2 polar bodies. Meiosis 1 completed during egg maturation. ovulation. Meiosis 2 completed triggered by fertilization.

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Animal Reproduction&Development


Oogenesis l.jpg

What is theadvantage ofthis development system?

Oogenesis

  • Unequal meiotic divisions

    • unequal distribution of cytoplasm

    • 1 egg

    • 2 polar bodies

Meiosis 1 completed

during egg maturation

ovulation

Meiosis 2 completed

triggered by fertilization

Put all your eggin one basket!


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Fertilization

  • fertilization

  • cleavage

  • gastrulation

  • neurulation

  • organogenesis


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Fertilization

  • Joining of sperm & egg

    • sperm head (nucleus) enters egg


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Cleavage

  • Repeated mitotic divisions of zygote

    • 1st step to becoming multicellular

    • unequal divisions establishes body plan

      • different cells receive different portions of egg cytoplasm & therefore different regulatory signals


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Cleavage

  • zygote  morula  blastula

    • establishes future development

zygote

gastrulation

blastula

morula


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gastrulation inprimitive chordates

Gastrulation

  • Establish 3 cell layers

    • ectoderm

      • outer body tissues

        • skin, nails, teeth

        • nerves, eyes, lining of mouth

    • mesoderm

      • middle tissues

        • blood & lymph, bone & notochord, muscle

        • excretory & reproductive systems

    • endoderm

      • inner lining

        • digestive system

        • lining of respiratory, excretory & reproductive systems

ectoderm

mesoderm

endoderm

protostome vs. deuterostome


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Testing…

All of the following correctly describe the fate of the embryonic layers of a vertebrate EXCEPT

A. neural tube and epidermis develop from ectoderm

B. linings of digestive organs and lungs develop from endoderm

C. notochord and kidneys develop from endoderm

D. skeletal muscles and heart develop from mesoderm

E. reproductive organs and blood vessels develop from mesoderm


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Testing…

In a study of the development of frogs, groups of cells in the germ layers of several embryos in the early gastrula stage were stained with five different dyes that do not harm living tissue. After organogenesis (organ formation), the location of the dyes was noted, as shown in the table below.

Tissue Stain

Brain Red

Notochord Yellow

Liver Green

Lens of the eye Blue

Lining of the digestive tract Purple


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Neurulation

  • Formation of notochord & neural tube

    • develop into nervous system

develops into CNS (brain & spinal cord)

Neural tube

Notochord

develops intovertebral column


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Organogenesis

Umbilical blood vessels

Mammalian embryo

Chorion

Bird embryo

Amnion

Yolk

sac

Allantois

Fetal blood vessels

Placenta

Maternal blood vessels


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Placenta

  • Materials exchange across membranes


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Human fetal development

4 weeks

7 weeks



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Human fetal development

12 weeks

20 weeks


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Human fetal development

  • The fetus just spends much of the 2nd & 3rd trimesters just growing

    …and doing various flip-turns & kicks inside amniotic fluid

Week 20


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Human fetal development

  • 24 weeks (6 months; 2nd trimester)

fetus is covered with fine, downy hair called lanugo. Its skin is protected by a waxy material called vernix


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Human fetal development

  • 30 weeks (7.5 months)

umbilical cord


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Getting crowded in there!!

  • 32 weeks (8 months)

The fetus sleeps 90-95% of the day & sometimes experiences REM sleep, an indication of dreaming



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Birth (36 weeks)

Intestine

Placenta

Umbilical

cord

Wall of

uterus

Bladder

Cervix

Vagina


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The end of the journey!

And you think 9 months of AP Bio is hard!


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