Chapter 13
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Chapter 13. Orthographic Sketching. Describing an Angle Bracket. Orthographic Projection. Orthographic drawings represent three dimensional objects in three separate views arranged in a standard manner. Orthographic Views.

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Chapter 13

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Chapter 13

Orthographic Sketching


Describing an Angle Bracket


Orthographic Projection

  • Orthographic drawings represent three dimensional objects in three separate views arranged in a standard manner.


Orthographic Views

  • You can adequately describe most objects with three orthographic views.

    • Front

    • Top

    • Right


Converting to Orthographic


Orthographic Views –Line Types


Line Types

Visible Line

Hidden Line

Center Line

Dimension Line

Construction Line


Line Types


Sketching Techniques


Engineering Drawing Skills

  • Lettering

  • Line Types

  • Orthographic Views

  • Patience

See the example drawings in the notes.


Engineering Drawing Rules

  • Always use a Pencil.

  • Make all lettering the same size.

  • Use Engineering or Drafting Paper.


Orthographic Views

  • You can adequately describe most objects with three orthographic views.

    • Front

    • Top

    • Right


Sketching techniques

  • Use very light construction lines

  • “Box in” the rough outline of the object

  • Darken only the lines you wish to keep

  • Clean up the edges and rough spots


Orthographic Projection

  • 2 Dimensional projections on Orthogonal planes

  • Show lines based on change of plane or change of material

  • Use multiple linetypes

    • Visible

    • Hidden

    • Center


Describing an Angle Bracket

  • A relatively simple object

  • Pictorial view may be difficult


Glass Box concept

  • Envision the object surrounded in a glass box

  • Project the views out onto the pieces of glass

  • Each pane shows a 2D projection of the object


Completed Orthographics


Projection Planes

  • The three panes of glass represent the principal orthographic planes

    • Horizontal

    • Frontal

    • Profile

  • Each plane illustrates two of the principal dimensions: Height, Width, and Depth


Class Exercise

  • As a team you have 3 minutes to discuss the following:

  • What dimensions are contained on each of the principal projection planes?


The Glass Box Approach


Orthographic Projection


Opening the Box


Final Views


Six Orthographic Views


Laying Out All Six Views


Three Primary Views


View Selection

  • If the object has an obvious top, then it must be the top view

  • Minimize the number of hidden lines

  • Use the most descriptive view as the front view

  • Conserve space by choosing the depth to be the smallest dimension


Precedence of Lines


Construction of Views

  • Must align orthographic views

  • Width appears in Top and Front

  • Height appears in Front and Side

  • Depth appears in Side and Top

  • Height and width project directly

  • Depth must be projected via a 45° angle


Steps in Creating the Three-View Sketch


Step 1 - Lightly Block Three Views

Use very light lines for drawing in the construction lines


Step 2 - Lightly Block Major Features


Step 3 - Add Features, Use Miter Line


Steps in Creating the Three-View SketchStep 4 - Add Final Lines


Steps in Creating the Three-View SketchCompleted Sketch


Think-Pair-Share

  • In the next 1 minute as an Individual

  • if you could ask a question . . . specifically what don’t you understand about today’s topic what would it be. [at least 3 items should be listed]

  • Now take 2 minutes

  • to merge your list with the person sitting next to you AND add 1 new item to the list

  • In the next 5 minutes

  • share the results with the other half of your team, delete questions that you can answer for each other, AND prioritize the remaining questions your list


Team Exercise

  • Complete three orthographic views of the object shown on the next slide.

  • Include visible, hidden, and center lines where appropriate.

  • Use the grid paper in the back of your book or your engineering sketch pad.

  • You will be given 7 minutes.


Object for exercise


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