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Chapter 13. Orthographic Sketching. Describing an Angle Bracket. Orthographic Projection. Orthographic drawings represent three dimensional objects in three separate views arranged in a standard manner. Orthographic Views.

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Chapter 13

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Chapter 13

Chapter 13

Orthographic Sketching

Describing an angle bracket

Describing an Angle Bracket

Orthographic projection

Orthographic Projection

  • Orthographic drawings represent three dimensional objects in three separate views arranged in a standard manner.

Orthographic views

Orthographic Views

  • You can adequately describe most objects with three orthographic views.

    • Front

    • Top

    • Right

Converting to orthographic

Converting to Orthographic

Orthographic views line types

Orthographic Views –Line Types

Line types

Line Types

Visible Line

Hidden Line

Center Line

Dimension Line

Construction Line

Line types1

Line Types

Sketching techniques

Sketching Techniques

Engineering drawing skills

Engineering Drawing Skills

  • Lettering

  • Line Types

  • Orthographic Views

  • Patience

See the example drawings in the notes.

Engineering drawing rules

Engineering Drawing Rules

  • Always use a Pencil.

  • Make all lettering the same size.

  • Use Engineering or Drafting Paper.

Orthographic views1

Orthographic Views

  • You can adequately describe most objects with three orthographic views.

    • Front

    • Top

    • Right

Sketching techniques1

Sketching techniques

  • Use very light construction lines

  • “Box in” the rough outline of the object

  • Darken only the lines you wish to keep

  • Clean up the edges and rough spots

Orthographic projection1

Orthographic Projection

  • 2 Dimensional projections on Orthogonal planes

  • Show lines based on change of plane or change of material

  • Use multiple linetypes

    • Visible

    • Hidden

    • Center

Describing an angle bracket1

Describing an Angle Bracket

  • A relatively simple object

  • Pictorial view may be difficult

Glass box concept

Glass Box concept

  • Envision the object surrounded in a glass box

  • Project the views out onto the pieces of glass

  • Each pane shows a 2D projection of the object

Completed orthographics

Completed Orthographics

Projection planes

Projection Planes

  • The three panes of glass represent the principal orthographic planes

    • Horizontal

    • Frontal

    • Profile

  • Each plane illustrates two of the principal dimensions: Height, Width, and Depth

Class exercise

Class Exercise

  • As a team you have 3 minutes to discuss the following:

  • What dimensions are contained on each of the principal projection planes?

The glass box approach

The Glass Box Approach

Orthographic projection2

Orthographic Projection

Opening the box

Opening the Box

Final views

Final Views

Six orthographic views

Six Orthographic Views

Laying out all six views

Laying Out All Six Views

Three primary views

Three Primary Views

View selection

View Selection

  • If the object has an obvious top, then it must be the top view

  • Minimize the number of hidden lines

  • Use the most descriptive view as the front view

  • Conserve space by choosing the depth to be the smallest dimension

Precedence of lines

Precedence of Lines

Construction of views

Construction of Views

  • Must align orthographic views

  • Width appears in Top and Front

  • Height appears in Front and Side

  • Depth appears in Side and Top

  • Height and width project directly

  • Depth must be projected via a 45° angle

Steps in creating the three view sketch

Steps in Creating the Three-View Sketch

Step 1 lightly block three views

Step 1 - Lightly Block Three Views

Use very light lines for drawing in the construction lines

Step 2 lightly block major features

Step 2 - Lightly Block Major Features

Step 3 add features use miter line

Step 3 - Add Features, Use Miter Line

Steps in creating the three view sketch step 4 add final lines

Steps in Creating the Three-View SketchStep 4 - Add Final Lines

Steps in creating the three view sketch completed sketch

Steps in Creating the Three-View SketchCompleted Sketch

Think pair share


  • In the next 1 minute as an Individual

  • if you could ask a question . . . specifically what don’t you understand about today’s topic what would it be. [at least 3 items should be listed]

  • Now take 2 minutes

  • to merge your list with the person sitting next to you AND add 1 new item to the list

  • In the next 5 minutes

  • share the results with the other half of your team, delete questions that you can answer for each other, AND prioritize the remaining questions your list

Team exercise

Team Exercise

  • Complete three orthographic views of the object shown on the next slide.

  • Include visible, hidden, and center lines where appropriate.

  • Use the grid paper in the back of your book or your engineering sketch pad.

  • You will be given 7 minutes.

Object for exercise

Object for exercise

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