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### Chapter 13

Orthographic Sketching

Orthographic Projection

- Orthographic drawings represent three dimensional objects in three separate views arranged in a standard manner.

Orthographic Views

- You can adequately describe most objects with three orthographic views.
- Front
- Top
- Right

Engineering Drawing Skills

- Lettering
- Line Types
- Orthographic Views
- Patience

See the example drawings in the notes.

Engineering Drawing Rules

- Always use a Pencil.
- Make all lettering the same size.
- Use Engineering or Drafting Paper.

Orthographic Views

- You can adequately describe most objects with three orthographic views.
- Front
- Top
- Right

Sketching techniques

- Use very light construction lines
- “Box in” the rough outline of the object
- Darken only the lines you wish to keep
- Clean up the edges and rough spots

Orthographic Projection

- 2 Dimensional projections on Orthogonal planes
- Show lines based on change of plane or change of material
- Use multiple linetypes
- Visible
- Hidden
- Center

Describing an Angle Bracket

- A relatively simple object
- Pictorial view may be difficult

Glass Box concept

- Envision the object surrounded in a glass box
- Project the views out onto the pieces of glass
- Each pane shows a 2D projection of the object

Projection Planes

- The three panes of glass represent the principal orthographic planes
- Horizontal
- Frontal
- Profile

- Each plane illustrates two of the principal dimensions: Height, Width, and Depth

Class Exercise

- As a team you have 3 minutes to discuss the following:
- What dimensions are contained on each of the principal projection planes?

View Selection

- If the object has an obvious top, then it must be the top view
- Minimize the number of hidden lines
- Use the most descriptive view as the front view
- Conserve space by choosing the depth to be the smallest dimension

Construction of Views

- Must align orthographic views
- Width appears in Top and Front
- Height appears in Front and Side
- Depth appears in Side and Top
- Height and width project directly
- Depth must be projected via a 45° angle

Step 1 - Lightly Block Three Views

Use very light lines for drawing in the construction lines

Steps in Creating the Three-View SketchStep 4 - Add Final Lines

Steps in Creating the Three-View SketchCompleted Sketch

Think-Pair-Share

- In the next 1 minute as an Individual
- if you could ask a question . . . specifically what don’t you understand about today’s topic what would it be. [at least 3 items should be listed]
- Now take 2 minutes
- to merge your list with the person sitting next to you AND add 1 new item to the list
- In the next 5 minutes
- share the results with the other half of your team, delete questions that you can answer for each other, AND prioritize the remaining questions your list

Team Exercise

- Complete three orthographic views of the object shown on the next slide.
- Include visible, hidden, and center lines where appropriate.
- Use the grid paper in the back of your book or your engineering sketch pad.
- You will be given 7 minutes.

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