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MKTG 504 - CONSUMER BEHAVIOR. WHO, WHEN, HOW, WHERE. Dr. Dennis Pitta University of Baltimore. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR. The subject of human behavior that is concerned with the decisions and acts of individuals in purchasing and using products. . BUYING BEHAVIOR.

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mktg 504 consumer behavior

MKTG 504 - CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

WHO, WHEN, HOW, WHERE.........

Dr. Dennis Pitta

University of Baltimore

consumer behavior

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

The subject of human behavior that is concerned with the decisions and acts of individuals in purchasing and using products.

buying behavior

BUYING BEHAVIOR

The decision processes and actions of individuals involved in buying and using products.

economic hu man model

ECONOMIC (HU) MAN MODEL

Income is spent on goods providing

UTILITY

MARGINAL UTILITY CONCEPT

PROBLEMS WITH THE MODEL:

MAN NOT ALWAYS RATIONAL

NO PERFECT INFORMATON

uses for the economic human model
USES FOR THE ECONOMICHUMAN MODEL
  • USEFUL FOR EXPENSIVE GOODS
  • PROVIDES ANALYSIS OFECONOMIC VARIABLES FOR WHCIH DATA EXISTS.

(E.G., ELASTICITY - at what price will utility decrease?)

learning theory model pavlovian
LEARNING THEORY MODEL - PAVLOVIAN
  • DRIVE
  • CUE
  • RESPONSE
  • REINFORCEMENT
uses for learning theory model many brand loyalty brand names
USES FOR LEARNING THEORY MODEL

MANY: BRAND LOYALTY

BRAND NAMES

problems with the learning theory model
PROBLEMS WITH THE LEARNING THEORY MODEL

NEGLECTS:

  • PERCEPTIONS
  • INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCES
  • SUBCONCIOUS
motivation model freudian
MOTIVATION MODEL: FREUDIAN

(SYMBOLIC PRODUCT)

Uses PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES

MOTIVATIONAL RESEARCH

PROBLEMS WITH THE MODEL:

  • COSTLY
  • INTERPRETATION???
slide13

Typical directions….

Study the picture on the right until your imagination begins to form a story about it. There are no rules except that your story should have a beginning

(what has happened in the story so far), middle (what is happening now), and an end (how things turn out).

describe the person who composed this shopping list list a or list b
Describe the person who composed this shopping list (List A or List B)
  • 10 pounds of potatoes
  • 5 pound of sugar
  • 3 pounds of ground round
  • 1 lb of ground coffee <--> 16oz instant
  • 1 loaf of white bread
  • 2 pounds of carrots
  • 1 box of laundry detergent
  • 1 pound of tomatoes
  • 2 qts milk
influences on consumer behavior

Personal Influences

Age and Family Life

Cycle Stage

Lifestyle

Personality &

Self-Concept

Occupation &

Economic Circumstances

Influences on Consumer Behavior
social psychological model
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL MODEL

MANY FACTORS AFFECT BEHAVIOR:

  • INDIVIDUAL
  • FAMILY
  • REFERENCE GROUPS
    • (Opinion Leadership)
  • SOCIAL CLASS
  • CULTURE
personal influence personality

Personal Influence : PERSONALITY

Personality = The collection of relatively permanent tendencies to behavior in consistent ways in certain situations.

personal influence attitudes

Personal Influence: ATTITUDES

Attitudes = Enduring feelings, evaluations, and responses - tendencies directed toward an object or idea.

May be positive or negative.

Attitudes does not equal buying intentions.

Resistant to changes.

components of attitudes
Components of attitudes
  • BELIEFS about an object (bi)
  • EVALUATION of those beliefs as good or bad (e i)
  • Ao=biei
my attitude toward spinach
My attitude toward spinach
  • Aspinach= b1e1+b2e2+b3e3+b4e4
    • 1 - it is good for me
    • 2 - it is low calorie
    • 3 - it reduces cholesterol??
    • 4 - it tastes bad
  • Aspinach= (1)(+1)+ (1)(+1)+ (0)(+10)+ (1)(-6) = - 4
how do you change a person s attitude
How do you change a person’s attitude?
  • Change the beliefs - not the evaluation
  • Example: 9 out of 10 doctors eat spinach to lower their cholesterol
personal influence perception

Personal Influence: PERCEPTION

Perception = The process through which an individual selects relevant stimuli from the environment, organizes them and assigns meaning to them.

SELECTIVE EXPOSURE

SELECTIVE DISTORTION

SELECTIVE RETENTION

personal influence motivation

Personal Influence: MOTIVATION

Motivation = The driving force that causes a person to take action to satisfy specific needs or wants.

Example: Maslow’s hierarchy.

Physiological

Safety

Love and belonging

Esteem

Self-esteem

how believable is maslow
How believable is Maslow?
  • There is no evidence that needs beyond safety needs exist widely throughout society.
personal influence learning

Personal Influence: LEARNING

Learning = The process through which a relatively permanent change in behavior results from the consequences of past behavior.

source of learning

Source of Learning

Direct Experience = actual use

Indirect Experience = information obtained from others or observation of the behavior of others.

result of learning

Result of Learning

Brand Loyalty -> learned through positive reinforcement.

Extinction -> weakening of well-established habit by unsatisfactory experiences.

social factors
Social Factors

Reference

Groups

Family

Roles &

Statuses

cultural factors

Culture

Subculture

Social Class

Cultural Factors

Buyer

diffusion of innovation

Diffusion of Innovation

CONCERNED WITH THE ADOPTION OF NEW PRODUCTS

the diffusion of innovations through a market

34%

Late

majority

34%

Early

majority

13 1/2%

Early

adopters

16%

Laggards

2 1/2%

Innovators

The Diffusion of Innovations through a market

Time of adoption innovations

how much effort do you spend to buy gum
How much effort do you spend to buy gum?
  • ________________________________
consumer behavior45
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
  • When the product is familiar but not important - ROUTINE RESPONSE BEHAVIOR
  • When the product is unfamiliar and not important - LIMITED DECISION MAKING
  • When the product is IMPORTANT ($$) - EXTENSIVE DECISION MAKING
  • When ya gotta have it - IMPULSE BUYING
consumer decision process
Consumer Decision Process
  • PROBLEM RECOGNITION
  • INFORMATION SEARCH
  • ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION
  • PURCHASE DECISION
  • POSTPURCHASE EVALUATION
consumer buying process

Information

search

Evaluation of

alternatives

Purchase

decision

Postpurchase

behavior

Consumer BuyingProcess

Problem

recognition

four types of buying behavior

Significant

differences

between

brands

Few

differences

between

brands

Four Types of Buying Behavior

Complex

Buying

Behavior

Variety-

Seeking

Behavior

High

Involvement

Low

Involvement

Dissonance-

Reducing Buying

Behavior

Habitual

Buying

Behavior

organizational buying behavior
Organizational Buying Behavior
  • CHARACTERISTICS
    • Derived Demand
    • Fewer Buyers
    • More Concentrated Geographically
    • Greater $ per Transaction
organizational buying behavior52
Organizational Buying Behavior
  • DIFFERENCES FROM CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
    • More Rational (Value Analysis)
    • Large Volume Purchases
    • Many Individuals Involved
    • Evaluation Specific
    • Service and Leasing Important
organizational buying behavior53
Organizational Buying Behavior

“THE BUYING CENTER”

BASED ON ROLES

  • USER - ACTUALLY USES IT
  • BUYER - BUYS IT (PROCESSES THE PAPERWORK)
  • INFLUENCER - SHAPES THE EXPECTATIONS FOR IT
  • GATEKEEPER - INFLUENCES THE FLOW OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE DECISION
  • DECIDER - ACTUALLY MAKES THE DECISION
organizational buying behavior55
Organizational Buying Behavior

BUY TASKS

  • NEW TASK - NEW PRODUCT- NEW VENDOR
  • STRAIGHT REBUY - OLD PRODUCT - NEW VENDOR
  • MODIFIED REBUY - NEW PRODUCT - OLD VENDOR/ OR OLD PRODUCT - NEW VENDOR
organizational buying behavior56
Organizational Buying Behavior

NAIS( old SIC) CODE - STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION

  • A WAY OF LUMPING LIKE COMPANIES TOGETHER
  • EXAMPLE
    • 27 -> PRINTING, PUBLISHING, AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES
    • 272 -> PERIODICALS: PUBLISHING, PUBLISHING AND PRINTING
    • 2721 -> COMIC BOOKS, MAGAZINES, PERIODICALS, STATISTICAL REPORTS, TRADE JOURNALS
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