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m -Business. Content 1. Wireless Devices 2. Wireless Internet Access 3. Wireless Web Technology 4. Software Applications for Wireless Devices 5. B2C Applications. Introduction. Wireless technology turns e-business into m-business , or mobile business Current applications

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m-Business

Content

1. Wireless Devices

2. Wireless Internet Access

3. Wireless Web Technology

4. Software Applications for Wireless Devices

5. B2C Applications


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Introduction

  • Wireless technology turns e-business into m-business, or mobile business

  • Current applications

    • Conduct online transactions

    • Make purchases

    • Trade stocks

    • Send e-mail

  • Future applications

    • A wireless office, where computers, phones and other office equipment are all networked without cables


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Wireless Devices

  • Wireless development

    • First-generation wireless technology was the cellular phone

    • Second generation wireless technology, which includes digital cellular phones, is currently in use worldwide

    • Third generation, or 3G technology will enable wireless devices to send and receive data as much as seven times faster than a standard 56K modem

  • Wireless devices

    • Personal digital assistants (PDAs)

    • Digital cellular phones

    • Two-way pagers


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Wireless Devices (cont.)

  • Outside the United States, mobile phones are the preferred medium for getting information and making e-business transactions

  • Service is not universally available and still relatively expensive

  • Limited bandwidth restricts the amount of data that can be sent over the wireless network

  • Wireless devices have significantly smaller memory capacity and less powerful processors than desktop computers


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m-Business

  • m-Business

    • e-Business using wireless devices with Internet access

    • B2C marketplace

      • Increased conveniences for consumers

      • Frequent, small transactions

      • Receiving news, sports scores, e-mail, coupons and advertisements

    • B2B marketplace

      • Salespeople can access product databases and place orders

      • Address customer needs immediately

      • Ordering and billing will be conducted remotely


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Wireless Internet Access

  • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

    • Each transmission is assigned a specific channel, giving the transmission the benefit of the entire bandwidth within that channel and reducing the possibility that a connection will be broken

    • Able to assign each transmission on the network a unique code to ensure security

  • Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)

    • Uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) which takes multiple calls and assigns each call to a different time slot on the same radio frequency


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Wireless Internet Access (cont.)

  • 3G technologies

    • EDGE (Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution)

    • Cdma2000

    • W-CDMA

  • International Telecommunications Union (ITU)

    • Establishes guidelines for 3G


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Wireless Web Technology

  • Three technologies are used to provide Web access to wireless devices

    • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)

    • Web Clipping

    • Microsoft’s Pocket Internet Explorer


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Web Clipping

  • Web clipping

    • Allows users to take relevant pieces of a Web site and deliver it to a wireless device, eliminating excess content and graphics

    • Palm devices use Web clipping

  • Proxy server

    • Lies between client (such as a Web browser) and Web server

    • Query is received by a proxy server controlled by the wireless ISP

    • Proxy server goes to the Web site and “clips” the necessary data

      • The proxy server transmits the data back to your wireless device

      • If the proxy server does not have the information, it passes the request to the regular server


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Personal Digital Assistants

  • Palm VII wireless handheld computer

  • Query Application Builder (QAB)

    • Web designers build Palm Query Applications (PQAs) to be installed on users’ Palm handheld computers

    • With a PQA for a particular web site installed on the Palm, the user can view the tailored content for that web site


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Personal Digital Assistants (cont.)


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Personal Digital Assistants (cont.)


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WAP and WML

  • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)

    • Developed by Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola, etc.

    • A set of communication protocols designed to enable different kinds of wireless devices to communicate and access the Internet

    • Designed to standardize development across different wireless technologies worldwide

    • Intended primarily for Internet-enabled digital phones, pagers and other handheld devices

    • Uses Web sites specifically designed for wireless handheld devices that have small screens and low-bandwidth constraints


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WAP and WML (cont.)

  • Wireless Markup Language (WML)

    • The scripting language used to create Web content to be delivered to wireless handheld devices, based on XML

    • Removes “unnecessary” content from Web pages

    • WML tags are used to “mark up” a Web page to specify how the page should be formatted on a wireless device

    • WML works with the WAP to deliver the content

    • Similar to HTML, but it does not require input devices

  • Microbrowsers

    • Designed with limited bandwidth and limited memory requirements

    • Access the Web via the wireless Internet


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WAP and WML (cont.)

  • How wireless Internet works:

    • A WAP gateway, which acts as a proxy server, receives the request, translates it and sends it to the appropriate Internet server

    • Server responds by sending the requested WML document

    • The WAP gateway parses this document's WML (i.e., it analyzes the WML document, checking it for correctness) and sends the proper text to the digital phone

  • Deck

    A WML document

  • Card

    • Consists of one user interaction, providing the WML browser with a small, self-contained document for browsing


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WAP and WML (cont.)


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Software Applications for Wireless Devices

  • No widely accepted standard for wireless development

  • Developers are often required to develop multiple applications

  • Microsoft Pocket Internet Explorer

    • Reformats complete Web pages as they are downloaded from the Internet for display on the Pocket PC

    • Allows Pocket PC users to access most of the content currently available on the Web and eliminates the need to tailor Web content for delivery to handheld devices

  • PacketVideo

    • Specializes in wireless video technology for mobile devices


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Software Applications for Wireless Devices (cont.)


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Software Applications for Wireless Devices (cont.)


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Software Applications for Wireless Devices (cont.)


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Wireless Local Area Networks

  • Easier to install and maintain without disrupting an office

  • Computers can easily be moved without having to install a new network connection in each location

  • Radio Frequency WLANs (RF WLANs)

    • Used to network devices at a distance

  • Infrared and laser WLANs

    • Do not require approval

    • Do not have the same interference issues

    • Can be used only for short distances


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Wireless Local Area Networks (cont.)

  • Infrared technology

    • More cost efficient than laser technology

    • Equipment has a longer lifespan

    • Technology is less susceptible to weather

    • Reliable and easy to install

    • The system is portable

  • Transceivers

    • Send the signal between the buildings and are linked to the network using fiber-optic cable (used with infrared technology)


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Bluetooth

  • Bluetooth

    • A wireless technology that provides short-range, high-speed voice and data communication between digital devices

    • Conceived by Ericsson in 1994

    • Provides up to 1 Mbps (megabits per second) of data transfer capability between devices as much as 30 feet apart

    • Can also be used to create wireless offices

  • Bluetooth Special Interest Group

    • Initially comprising Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Toshiba and Nokia

    • Developed an open specification for the technology and to encouraged cross-platform capabilities for the different wireless devices


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The Bluetooth Handset


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Wireless Communications

  • Wireless communications can be unreliable and slow, wireless-device bandwidth is about one fifth of the capabilities of a standard dial-up connection

  • General packet radio services (GPRS)

    • Enables devices to transmit data at speeds of up to 114 kbps

  • Universal mobile telecommunications standard (UMTS)

    • Will offer transfer speeds of up to 2 Mbps for wireless devices

  • Smart phones

    • Mobile phones that send and receive both voice and data messages

    • Used to securely send and receive secure mobile transactions


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Location Tracking

  • Location tracking

    • Can be used for navigation, such as GPS (Global Positioning System) devices installed in cars

    • Can be used by shipping companies to track delivery trucks, giving customers more accurate tracking information and expected delivery time

    • Can also be used for targeted marketing

    • Go2systems.com


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Global Positioning System (GPS)

  • Developed by the United States Department of Defense for military purposes, now used in commercial devices

    • Standard Positioning Service (SPS)

    • Precise Positioning Service (PPS)

  • Uses satellites to track a user’s position (vertical and horizontal), velocity and the time in their location

  • Six circular orbits (four satellites per orbit), five ground stations and three antennas

  • Triangulation

    • Three (of four) satellites are used to determine the latitude, longitude and altitude of the receiver, the fourth satellite is used to check for errors in the triangulation


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Future of Wireless Internet

  • Decreasing cost and size of wireless phones and mobile devices

  • Improving technology

  • Increasing number of devices made wireless

  • Increased venture capitalist interest in wireless technology


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Ultimate Wireless Device

  • Combination of all features of a mobile phone, PDA and two-way pager

  • Camera for video telephony and photography

  • Make calls from anywhere in the world

  • Send and receive e-mail in real-time, without having to dial into a service provider

  • Maintain your address book, schedules, to-do lists, etc.

  • Built-in GPS System


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Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Applications

  • Mobile devices

    • News, scores, e-mail

  • Micropayments: small transactions

    • Accenture’s Mobile Micropayments


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B2C Applications (cont.)

Wireless micropayment demonstration


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Retail

  • Web shopping saves time and money

  • Web retail models

    • Shopping-cart model

    • Auction model

    • Price-comparison model

  • Electronic Retail

    • Amazon.com

    • buy.com

    • snaz.com (wireless)

  • Wireless ticket purchases and gate transactions

    • Bluetooth and Infrared


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Wireless News Services

  • Concise text-only versions

  • ABCNews.com

    • Daily headlines and section browsing

  • Dotcomscoop.com

    • Latest dot-com developments


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Entertainment

  • Wireless gaming

    • Charged per game or through advertising

  • Sports teams

    • Scores and updates

    • Fantasy games

  • Downloadable e-books


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Travel

  • Air Travel

    • Internet sites aggregate airline information, fill seats

    • E-tickets lower overhead costs

    • American Airlines

  • Travelocity.com

    • All travel arrangements in single visit

    • Offers wireless services on Palm

  • Navigation on Wireless Devices

    • Find restaurants, hospitals, police stations

    • Driving directions, maps

    • GPS: Global Positioning System


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Travel (cont.)

American Airlines wireless home page.


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Banking and Financial Services

  • Investing options

    • Full-service brokers: online trading with broker’s advice

      • Merrill Lynch

      • Salomon Smith Barney

    • Discount-brokerage service: investors manage own accounts and research

      • E*Trade

  • Wireless banking and trading

    • Fidelity’sInstantBroker: monitor market and portfolios on wireless device

    • National Discount Brokers: stock alerts, monitor market and stock management


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Banking and Financial Services (cont.)

  • Online trading considerations

    • User issues

      • Time

      • Knowledge on investing

    • Service issues

      • Type of investments

      • Navigation tools

      • Customer service

      • Number of trades and fees

  • Learning tools

    • The Motley Fool: financial information site

    • Money.com: financial strategies


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Banking and Financial Services (cont.)

Placing a stock order through NDB’s Mobility.


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Banking and Financial Services (cont.)

Viewing your profile via Mobile E*Trade.


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Other Applications

  • Wireless insurance

    • Progressive Causality Insurance Company: finding agents and getting price quotes

  • Wireless real estate

    • check additional listings, review amenities and submit bids while viewing a property with a client


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Main References

  • e-Business & e-Commerce for Managers, H.M. Deitel, P.J. Deitel and K. Steinbuhler, Prentice Hall, 2000.

  • eBusiness Essentials: Technology and Network Requirements for Mobile and Online Markets, 2/e, by Mark Norris and Steve West, John Wiley & Sons, 2001.


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