The geosphere
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The Geosphere. The Earth as a System. The Earth is a system of 4 interacting components. Consists of: - Geosphere- Hydrosphere - Atmosphere- Biosphere. The Geosphere Composition. The solid part of the Earth (rocks, minerals, soil, etc.) Most of the geosphere is below the surface.

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The Geosphere

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The geosphere

The Geosphere


The earth as a system

The Earth as a System

The Earth is a system of 4 interacting components.

Consists of:

- Geosphere- Hydrosphere

- Atmosphere- Biosphere


The geosphere composition

The GeosphereComposition

  • The solid part of the Earth (rocks, minerals, soil, etc.)

    • Most of the geosphere is below the surface


The geosphere

  • Look at the world map. Does anything look like it could fit together like a puzzle?


The geosphere plate tectonics

The GeospherePlate Tectonics

Pangaea – Wegener’s idea that all of Earth’s continents were joined into one giant landmass 200 million years ago.


The geosphere plate tectonics1

The GeospherePlate Tectonics

  • The tectonic plates ride atop the asthenosphere, moving in different directions


The geosphere

Convergent Plate Boundaries

Continental-continental

Oceanic-continental

Oceanic- oceanic


The geosphere plate tectonics2

The GeospherePlate Tectonics

  • The tectonic plates ride atop the asthenosphere, moving in different directions


The geosphere

Divergent Plate Boundaries

 Mid-ocean ridge

Rift Valley 


The geosphere plate tectonics3

The GeospherePlate Tectonics

  • The tectonic plates ride atop the asthenosphere, moving in different directions


Transform plate boundaries

Transform Plate Boundaries


The geosphere plate tectonics4

The GeospherePlate Tectonics

Global Earthquake Distribution

Global Volcano Distribution


The geosphere1

The Geosphere

Which of these geologic hazards poses the greatest threat to the environment? Why?


The geosphere2

The Geosphere


The geosphere erosion

The GeosphereErosion

  • Rocks on the surface are changed by wind, running water, and weather.

  • Erosion is the removal and transport of weathered surface materials.

  • Over long periods of time, erosion can wear away entire mountains and produce spectacular landforms.


How is the land in this picture being used

The Land

How is the land in this picture being used?


How we use land

How We Use Land

Urban land = land covered mostly with buildings & roads and containing 2500 or more people.

Rural land = land containing few people & large areas of open space.


Think pair share

Think-Pair-Share

How are each type of land cover important to people?


The urban rural connection

The Urban-Rural Connection

Think About It… Are people dependent on the resources produced in rural areas?

Ecosystem services – resources produced by natural & artificial ecosystems


Urban land use

Urban Land Use

  • Urbanization = the movement of people from rural areas to cities.

  • People move to the cities for jobs.


Urbanization

Urbanization

ProsCons


Urban crisis

Urban Crisis

When urban areas grow too quickly, a crisis can occur.

  • Overwhelmed infrastructure (roads, sewers, railroads, bridges, firefighters/police, schools, libraries, hospitals, water mains, & power lines)

  • Traffic jams

  • Substandard housing

  • Polluted air & water


Urban sprawl

Urban Sprawl

  • Urban sprawl = rapid expansion of a city into the countryside around the city.

    • Results from suburban building

      • housing & commercial

Suburban development around Maui, HI


Development of marginal lands

Development of Marginal Lands

  • Some suburbs have been built on land that is not well suited to support buildings.

  • This land is prone to landslides because it is unstable

    • Ex: Los Angeles, Mexico City


Urban environmental condition

Urban Environmental Condition

Heat Islands – increased temperature in a city

Why? - roads & buildings absorb more heat than vegetation

Effects? – local weather patterns change, more rainfall in cities

Pollution of air,

water, & land


Urban planning

Urban Planning

  • Land-use planning is essential for pleasant urban living experiences.

  • Ex:

    • Transportation in cities involves mass transit systems (buses, trains)

      • Mass transit saves energy, reduces traffic, lowers air pollution, & limits the loss of land to roads & parking lots

    • Open space is set aside in urban areas for recreational enjoyment (parks, gardens, bike paths, hiking trails)

      • Open spaces absorb CO2, produce oxygen, filter pollutants, lower temperatures, absorb rainwater


Land management conservation

Land Management & Conservation


Designing a community

Designing A Community

  • You are a land-use planner. Design a model community that is to be home for 1000 people. Name your community & tell us where in the world you are located.

    • Sketch your plans for the following:

      • Housing

      • Commercial

      • Transportation routes

      • Open spaces

      • Community services (electricity, water, trash collection, police & fire protection, schools, hospitals, etc.)

      • Where will resources come from?


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