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The Geosphere. The Earth as a System. The Earth is a system of 4 interacting components. Consists of: - Geosphere - Hydrosphere - Atmosphere - Biosphere. The Geosphere Composition. The solid part of the Earth (rocks, minerals, soil, etc.) Most of the geosphere is below the surface.

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The earth as a system
The Earth as a System

The Earth is a system of 4 interacting components.

Consists of:

- Geosphere - Hydrosphere

- Atmosphere - Biosphere


The geosphere composition
The GeosphereComposition

  • The solid part of the Earth (rocks, minerals, soil, etc.)

    • Most of the geosphere is below the surface



The geosphere plate tectonics
The Geosphere together like a puzzle?Plate Tectonics

Pangaea – Wegener’s idea that all of Earth’s continents were joined into one giant landmass 200 million years ago.


The geosphere plate tectonics1
The Geosphere together like a puzzle?Plate Tectonics

  • The tectonic plates ride atop the asthenosphere, moving in different directions


Convergent Plate Boundaries together like a puzzle?

Continental-continental

Oceanic-continental

Oceanic- oceanic


The geosphere plate tectonics2
The Geosphere together like a puzzle?Plate Tectonics

  • The tectonic plates ride atop the asthenosphere, moving in different directions


Divergent Plate Boundaries together like a puzzle?

 Mid-ocean ridge

Rift Valley 


The geosphere plate tectonics3
The Geosphere together like a puzzle?Plate Tectonics

  • The tectonic plates ride atop the asthenosphere, moving in different directions


Transform plate boundaries
Transform Plate Boundaries together like a puzzle?


The geosphere plate tectonics4
The Geosphere together like a puzzle?Plate Tectonics

Global Earthquake Distribution

Global Volcano Distribution


The geosphere1
The Geosphere together like a puzzle?

Which of these geologic hazards poses the greatest threat to the environment? Why?


The geosphere2
The Geosphere together like a puzzle?


The geosphere erosion
The Geosphere together like a puzzle?Erosion

  • Rocks on the surface are changed by wind, running water, and weather.

  • Erosion is the removal and transport of weathered surface materials.

  • Over long periods of time, erosion can wear away entire mountains and produce spectacular landforms.


How is the land in this picture being used

The Land together like a puzzle?

How is the land in this picture being used?


How we use land

How We Use Land together like a puzzle?

Urban land = land covered mostly with buildings & roads and containing 2500 or more people.

Rural land = land containing few people & large areas of open space.


Think pair share
Think-Pair-Share together like a puzzle?

How are each type of land cover important to people?


The urban rural connection
The Urban-Rural Connection together like a puzzle?

Think About It… Are people dependent on the resources produced in rural areas?

Ecosystem services – resources produced by natural & artificial ecosystems


Urban land use
Urban Land Use together like a puzzle?

  • Urbanization = the movement of people from rural areas to cities.

  • People move to the cities for jobs.


Urbanization
Urbanization together like a puzzle?

Pros Cons


Urban crisis
Urban Crisis together like a puzzle?

When urban areas grow too quickly, a crisis can occur.

  • Overwhelmed infrastructure (roads, sewers, railroads, bridges, firefighters/police, schools, libraries, hospitals, water mains, & power lines)

  • Traffic jams

  • Substandard housing

  • Polluted air & water


Urban sprawl
Urban Sprawl together like a puzzle?

  • Urban sprawl = rapid expansion of a city into the countryside around the city.

    • Results from suburban building

      • housing & commercial

Suburban development around Maui, HI


Development of marginal lands
Development of Marginal Lands together like a puzzle?

  • Some suburbs have been built on land that is not well suited to support buildings.

  • This land is prone to landslides because it is unstable

    • Ex: Los Angeles, Mexico City


Urban environmental condition
Urban Environmental Condition together like a puzzle?

Heat Islands – increased temperature in a city

Why? - roads & buildings absorb more heat than vegetation

Effects? – local weather patterns change, more rainfall in cities

Pollution of air,

water, & land


Urban planning
Urban Planning together like a puzzle?

  • Land-use planning is essential for pleasant urban living experiences.

  • Ex:

    • Transportation in cities involves mass transit systems (buses, trains)

      • Mass transit saves energy, reduces traffic, lowers air pollution, & limits the loss of land to roads & parking lots

    • Open space is set aside in urban areas for recreational enjoyment (parks, gardens, bike paths, hiking trails)

      • Open spaces absorb CO2, produce oxygen, filter pollutants, lower temperatures, absorb rainwater


Land management conservation
Land Management & Conservation together like a puzzle?


Designing a community
Designing A Community together like a puzzle?

  • You are a land-use planner. Design a model community that is to be home for 1000 people. Name your community & tell us where in the world you are located.

    • Sketch your plans for the following:

      • Housing

      • Commercial

      • Transportation routes

      • Open spaces

      • Community services (electricity, water, trash collection, police & fire protection, schools, hospitals, etc.)

      • Where will resources come from?