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ENVR430: Health Effects of Environmental Agents. Course director, L.M. Ball [email protected] , 6-7306 Office Rosenau 158 Where : Hooker Research Center 0003 www.unc.edu/courses/2008fall/envr/430/001/ When : Monday Wednesday Friday, 1 to 1:50 pm Why:. ASPH Competencies.

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envr430 health effects of environmental agents
ENVR430:Health Effects of Environmental Agents

Course director, L.M. Ball

[email protected], 6-7306

Office Rosenau 158

Where: Hooker Research Center 0003

www.unc.edu/courses/2008fall/envr/430/001/

When: Monday Wednesday Friday,

1 to 1:50 pm

Why:

asph competencies
ASPH Competencies

I.  Discipline-specific Competencies: Environmental Health Sciences

Describe the direct and indirect human, ecological and safety effects of major environmental and occupational agents

Describe genetic, physiologic and psychosocial factors that affect susceptibility to adverse health outcomes following exposure to environmental hazards.

Describe federal and state regulatory programs, guidelines and authorities that control environmental health issues

Specify current environmental risk assessment methods.

Specify approaches for assessing, preventing and controlling environmental hazards that pose risks to human health and safety.

Explain the general mechanisms of toxicity in eliciting a toxic response to various environmental exposures.

Discuss various risk management and risk communication approaches in relation to issues of environmental justice and equity.

Develop a testable model of environmental insult.

environmental health

Environmental Health

Environmental Health comprises those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by interactions with physical, chemical, biological and social factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing, correcting, controlling and preventing those factors in the environment that may adversely affect the health of present and future generations.

Pew Environmental Health Commission

environmental agents
Environmental Agents
  • Microbial
  • Chemical
  • Physical
physical hazards
Heat

Cold

Trauma

Radiation

Ionizing radiation (radioactivity)

Non-ionizing radiation

X-rays

UV

Infrared

Microwave

Radio

Electromagnetic

Physical Hazards
chemicals
Chemicals

“Naturally-Occurring”

“Anthropogenic”

naturally occurring chemicals
Naturally-Occurring Chemicals

Microbial toxins

Bacterial toxins (Often complex polypeptides)

Botulinus toxin (Clostridium botulinum )

Shigatoxin (Shigella dysenteriae)

Fungal toxins (mycotoxins)

Ergot alkaloids (Claviceps purpurea)

Aflatoxins (Aspergillus spps)

http://foodsafetyinfo.org/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=5312

plant constituents
Plant Constituents
  • Alkaloids
    • Atropine
    • Solanine
  • Pigments
  • Methane
  • Terpenes
  • Urushiol

Atropine

animal constituents
Animal Constituents
  • Alkaloids
  • Snake venom
  • Ciguatoxin
combustion products
Combustion Products
  • Gases
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Phenanthrene

Benzanthracene

Benzo[a]pyrene

minerals
Minerals
  • Dust (e.g. Ca, Al, Si)
  • Leaching into groundwater
    • Selenium
    • Arsenic
anthropogenic chemicals
Anthropogenic Chemicals
  • Inadvertent introduction
  • Deliberate use

Service station

near Wallace, NC

After Hurricane Floyd,

Sept 15, 1999

inadvertent introduction
Inadvertent introduction
  • Industrial by-products
  • Insulators
  • Effluents
  • Wastes
  • Spills
  • Improper

disposal

Apex Fire, Oct 2006

drinking water disinfection by products
Drinking water disinfection by-products
  • Trihalomethanes
    • Chloroform CHCl3
    • Bromodiloromethane CHBrCl2
    • Dibromochloromethane CHBr2Cl
    • Bromoform CHBr3
  • Haloacetic acids
    • Trichloroacetic acid CCl3-COOH
    • Dichloroacetic acid CHCl2-COOH
    • Dichlorobromoacetic acid CCl2Br-COOH
    • Dibromoacetic acid CHBr2-COOH
    • Dibromochloroacetic acid CBr2Cl-COOH
    • Tribromoacetic acid CBr3-COOH
combustion products1
Combustion products
  • Gases: CO, CO2, O3, peroxyacyl nitrates, nitrogen oxides (NOX: N2O, NO, NO2), sulfur oxides (SOX: SO2, SO3)
  • Particulate matter (PM)
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
deliberate use
Deliberate use
  • Pesticides
  • Fertilizers
  • Food additives
  • Plasticizers
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Waste disposal
insecticides
Insecticides
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Organophosphates
  • Carbamates
herbicides
Herbicides
  • Broad-spectrum
  • Broad-leaf
  • Grassy-leaf
fertilizers
Fertilizers
  • Nitrates
  • Phosphates
food additives
Food additives
  • Anti-oxidants
  • Anti-microbials
  • Sweeteners
  • Other flavoring agents
  • Coloring agents
  • Humectants
  • Anti-caking agents
plasticizers
Plasticizers

Bisphenol A

slide26

Red blood cell

NANOPARTICLE

<100 nm

PROTOZOAN

5 μm

VIRUS

0.1 μm

(100 nm)

BACTERIUM

1 x 2 μm

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