Envr430 health effects of environmental agents
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ENVR430: Health Effects of Environmental Agents. Course director, L.M. Ball lmball@unc.edu , 6-7306 Office Rosenau 158 Where : Hooker Research Center 0003 www.unc.edu/courses/2008fall/envr/430/001/ When : Monday Wednesday Friday, 1 to 1:50 pm Why:. ASPH Competencies.

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ENVR430: Health Effects of Environmental Agents

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ENVR430:Health Effects of Environmental Agents

Course director, L.M. Ball

lmball@unc.edu, 6-7306

Office Rosenau 158

Where: Hooker Research Center 0003

www.unc.edu/courses/2008fall/envr/430/001/

When: Monday Wednesday Friday,

1 to 1:50 pm

Why:


ASPH Competencies

I.  Discipline-specific Competencies: Environmental Health Sciences

Describe the direct and indirect human, ecological and safety effects of major environmental and occupational agents

Describe genetic, physiologic and psychosocial factors that affect susceptibility to adverse health outcomes following exposure to environmental hazards.

Describe federal and state regulatory programs, guidelines and authorities that control environmental health issues

Specify current environmental risk assessment methods.

Specify approaches for assessing, preventing and controlling environmental hazards that pose risks to human health and safety.

Explain the general mechanisms of toxicity in eliciting a toxic response to various environmental exposures.

Discuss various risk management and risk communication approaches in relation to issues of environmental justice and equity.

Develop a testable model of environmental insult.


Environmental Health

Environmental Health comprises those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by interactions with physical, chemical, biological and social factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing, correcting, controlling and preventing those factors in the environment that may adversely affect the health of present and future generations.

Pew Environmental Health Commission


Environmental Agents

  • Microbial

  • Chemical

  • Physical


Textbooks


Textbooks


Review


Heat

Cold

Trauma

Radiation

Ionizing radiation (radioactivity)

Non-ionizing radiation

X-rays

UV

Infrared

Microwave

Radio

Electromagnetic

Physical Hazards


Chemicals

“Naturally-Occurring”

“Anthropogenic”


Naturally-Occurring Chemicals

Microbial toxins

Bacterial toxins (Often complex polypeptides)

Botulinus toxin (Clostridium botulinum )

Shigatoxin (Shigella dysenteriae)

Fungal toxins (mycotoxins)

Ergot alkaloids (Claviceps purpurea)

Aflatoxins (Aspergillus spps)

http://foodsafetyinfo.org/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=5312


Plant Constituents

  • Alkaloids

    • Atropine

    • Solanine

  • Pigments

  • Methane

  • Terpenes

  • Urushiol

Atropine


Animal Constituents

  • Alkaloids

  • Snake venom

  • Ciguatoxin


Combustion Products

  • Gases

  • Hydrocarbons

  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Phenanthrene

Benzanthracene

Benzo[a]pyrene


Minerals

  • Dust (e.g. Ca, Al, Si)

  • Leaching into groundwater

    • Selenium

    • Arsenic


Anthropogenic Chemicals

  • Inadvertent introduction

  • Deliberate use

Service station

near Wallace, NC

After Hurricane Floyd,

Sept 15, 1999


Inadvertent introduction

  • Industrial by-products

  • Insulators

  • Effluents

  • Wastes

  • Spills

  • Improper

    disposal

Apex Fire, Oct 2006


Aromatic hydrocarbons

Chlorinated hydrocarbons

Industrialsolvents


Drinking water disinfection by-products

  • Trihalomethanes

    • Chloroform CHCl3

    • Bromodiloromethane CHBrCl2

    • Dibromochloromethane CHBr2Cl

    • Bromoform CHBr3

  • Haloacetic acids

    • Trichloroacetic acid CCl3-COOH

    • Dichloroacetic acid CHCl2-COOH

    • Dichlorobromoacetic acid CCl2Br-COOH

    • Dibromoacetic acid CHBr2-COOH

    • Dibromochloroacetic acid CBr2Cl-COOH

    • Tribromoacetic acid CBr3-COOH


Combustion products

  • Gases: CO, CO2, O3, peroxyacyl nitrates, nitrogen oxides (NOX: N2O, NO, NO2), sulfur oxides (SOX: SO2, SO3)

  • Particulate matter (PM)

  • Hydrocarbons

  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons


Deliberate use

  • Pesticides

  • Fertilizers

  • Food additives

  • Plasticizers

  • Pharmaceuticals

  • Waste disposal


Insecticides

  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons

  • Organophosphates

  • Carbamates


Herbicides

  • Broad-spectrum

  • Broad-leaf

  • Grassy-leaf


Fertilizers

  • Nitrates

  • Phosphates


Food additives

  • Anti-oxidants

  • Anti-microbials

  • Sweeteners

  • Other flavoring agents

  • Coloring agents

  • Humectants

  • Anti-caking agents


Plasticizers

Bisphenol A


Red blood cell

NANOPARTICLE

<100 nm

PROTOZOAN

5 μm

VIRUS

0.1 μm

(100 nm)

BACTERIUM

1 x 2 μm


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