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Volumes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Volumes. Tidal Volume (TV) = volume of air during one resting respiratory cycle. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) = volume of air that can be forcefully expired, following a resting expiration.

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Presentation Transcript
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Volumes

Tidal Volume (TV) = volume of air during one resting respiratory cycle.

Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) = volume of air that can be forcefully expired, following a resting expiration.

Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) = Volume of air that can be forcefully inspired, following resting inspiration.

Residual Volume (RV) = Volume of air that remains in lungs. About 1200mL.

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Capacities

Vital Capacity (VC) = maximal amount of air that can be expired after maximal inspiration.

VC = TV + IRV + ERV

Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) = Amount of air that remains in lungs following a relaxed expiration.

FRC = ERV + RV

Total Lung Capacity (TLC) = Maximal volume of air in lungs.

TLC = RV + ERV + TV + IRV or TLC = VC + RV

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Inspiration.

Relaxed inspiration. Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract.

Forceful inspiration. Diaphragm and external intercostal are supplemented by the sternocleidomastoid and pectoralis minor muscles.

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Expiration.

Normal expiration is due to elastic recoil of lungs and abdominal organs.

Forceful expiration is supplemented by the internal intercostal muscles and abdominal wall muscles.

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Factors Affecting Breathing

  • Medullary Respiratory Center – detects changes in CO2 and H+ (pH) concentrations
    • Major Stimulus for breathing
  • Carotid Bodies & Aortic Bodies – detects changes in O2 concentrations

HCO3- + H+

CO2+ H2O

H2CO3

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Hering-Breuer Reflex:

  • Stretch receptors in lung tissues are stimulated during inspiration.
  • Sensory impulses travel via the vagus nerve to the pneumotaxic center of the respiratory center in the pons.
  • Duration of inspiration shortens. Prevents overinflation.

CO2 + H2O

HCO3- + H+

H2CO3

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