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Teaching Academic Vocabulary through. Content-Based Intervention to ELL Students. AZ-TESOL Conference. October 26, 2013. Ali Yaylali, Sonoran Science Academy. Overview of Today’s Agenda Teaching ELLs in K-12 CCSS: Shift in vocabulary instruction Criteria for vocabulary selection

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TeachingAcademicVocabularythrough

Content-BasedInterventiontoELLStudents

AZ-TESOLConference

October26,2013

AliYaylali,SonoranScienceAcademy


OverviewofToday’sAgenda

TeachingELLsinK-12

CCSS:Shiftinvocabularyinstruction

Criteriaforvocabularyselection

Implicationsforvocabularyinstruction


TeachingELLsinK-12

•HighexpectationsfromELLstudentsinK-12

•Mainstreamsubjects(science,socialstudies,math,etc.)

•PrintedschoolEnglish:About85,000words(Nagy&Anderson,1984)

•15%chancesofincidentalvocabularylearning(Swanborn&deGlopper,1999)

•Widereading(Marzano,Pickering,&Pollock,2001)

•Lackofsystematicvocabularyinstruction(Biemiller,2001;McKeown&Curtis,1987)

•Recyclingthevocabularywordsorspacingthelearning


ShiftinVocabularyInstruction

•Alignmentwithcurricularmaterialsandinstruction

•Accesstogradelevelcomplextextacrosscontentareas(science,socialstudies,etc.)

•Transferrablevocabularyacrossgradelevels

•Assessmentonthemeaningofkeycommonterms

•RecognitionofTier2wordsfromthetext(Beck&McKeown,1985)

•Contentcompatibleandacademicvocabulary


ScientificText

Behaviorisanindividual'scevaptoitsenvironment.Itisimportanttoseparate

unlearnedfromlearnedbehavior.Instinctisunlearnedbehavior.Instinctisinherited.

Itispassedfromparenttooffspring.Anothernameforinstinctisinnatebehavior.

Someanimalslearnbygozlemleyerekothers.Buttheskillstheyedinmekinthatway

arelearned,notinnate.Someicsellestirilmisbehavioristheresultofhormones

releasedinthebody.Behaviorthatcanbechangedislearnedbehavior.Onetypeof

learnedbehavioriscalledimprinting.Imprintingisthedeeprapidlearningwhichgoes

oninanewbornornewlyhatchedanimal.Imprintingisortayacikmakmost

surprisinglywhenhumansareimprintedwiththepersonwhofeedsthemandsoothes

them.Experimentswithimprintinghaveresultedinyounganimalsacceptingother

animalsandevennon-livingobjectsassubstituteparents.


ScientificText

•Behaviorisanindividual'sresponsetoitsenvironment.Itisimportanttoseparate

unlearnedfromlearnedbehavior.Instinctisunlearnedbehavior.Instinctis

inherited.Itispassedfromparenttooffspring.Anothernameforinstinctisinnate

behavior.Someanimalslearnbyobservingothers.Buttheskillstheyacquirein

thatwayarelearned,notinnate.Someinnatebehavioristheresultofhormones

releasedinthebody.Behaviorthatcanbechangedislearnedbehavior.Onetypeof

learnedbehavioriscalledimprinting.Imprintingisthedeeprapidlearningwhich

goesoninanewbornornewlyhatchedanimal.Imprintingisdemonstratedmost

surprisinglywhenhumansareimprintedwiththepersonwhofeedsthemand

soothesthem.Experimentswithimprintinghaveresultedinyounganimals

acceptingotheranimalsandevennon-livingobjectsassubstituteparents.


ImplicationsforInstruction

Focusingonthewordsnotlikelytobeknownandessentialtotextmeaning

Explicitteachingofvocabulary(Marzanoetal.,2001)

Transferrablelearningstrategies

Discussionofandactivethinkingaboutvocabulary

Presentingvocabularyinnewcontexts

Usingvisualsandwordassociations

Studentself-monitoringandassessment

Scaffolding


Selectingvocabularyforinstruction

•Discriminatingbetweenthetiersofvocabulary(Beck&McKeown,1985)

•Academicwords

•Wordscontentcompatibleandreadfrequently

•Notfocusonsynonymsonly,butalsowordassociations,collocations,andwordweb

(ignitevs.start,happyvs.pleased)

•Bestjudgment=>Notmanyclearsetsofwordstoteach


SampleScience&ELLStandards

•7thGradeLifeScienceStandard:

•SWBATanalyzetherelationshipsamongvariousorganismsandtheirenvironment.[CONTENT

STANDARD]

•6th-8thGradeLowIntermediateELPVocabularyStandard:

•SWBATacquireEnglishlanguagevocabularyanduseitinrelevantcontexts.[LANGUAGESTANDARD]

•PerformanceObjective:SWBATdemonstrateknowledgeofvocabularybyidentifyingthemeaning/usage

ofhighfrequencywords(Tier2words,emphasisadded)andapplyingthemincontext.[Bloom’sTaxonomy]

•IntegratedLanguageObjective:SWBATdemonstrateknowledgeofwordsthatdescribethe

relationshipsbetweenorganismsandenvironment…

•bycompletingacuecardandusingthewordsinnewsentences.

•byusingthemindiscussionsanddramatizingthewordsingroups.

•bycompletingagraphicorganizerandusingthewordsinsummaries.


ScienceText

•LifeScience

•Interactionsbetweenanimalsandenvironment

•Familiarizestudentswiththestandardandperformanceobjective


ConceptFormationorNewContexts

•ImagineyouarehavingatourintheAfricanwilderness.Tellyourpartner

whatyouseearoundyou.Howdoesthelifeofanimalslooklike?

•Doyouthinkananimal’slifeinthezooisdifferentfromthelifeofthe

animalsintheforest?How?Shareyourideaswithyourpartners.


SentenceStems

Intheforest,Isee…

Intheforest,animalseat….

Elephantsneed…

Tigershunt…

Ananimal’slifeinthezooisdifferentbecause…

Animalsintheforestscan…


Forests

in

Africa

Animallifeinzoos

Describeforests.

Animallifeinforests

GraphicOrganizersand

ConceptFormation


Instructionalprocess

Introductionofvocabulary(linguisticrepresentation)

Visualrepresentation

Student’sownlinguisticrepresentation(writingasentence,definitionetc.)

Student’sownvisualrepresentation

Dramaticrepresentationorindependentuseofvocabularyincontext

Vocabularygames,clozeactivity,&wordhuntactivity


Introducethevocabulary…

Environment(T2)

Community(T2)

Habitat(T3)

Interaction(T2)

Adapt(T2)

Ecology(T3)


UsingKWLCharts

asScaffoldsforSelf-

Monitoringand

Self-Assessment

Sub-Topic

Sub-Topic

(Burke,2000)


ScaffoldsinInstruction

•Conceptformation,pictures,studentdiscussions

•Cuecard

•Studentfriendlydefinition

•Sentencestem(Newcontext)

•Wordassociations(conceptformation)

•Collocations


Vocabularyuseinnewcontexts

•TheenvironmentinArizonaisdifferentfromtheenvironmentinthe

Africanforestsbecause…

•Howdohumansdamagetheenvironment?Discussexampleswithyour

partner.


Activity

•Lookatthesciencetextaboutanimalbehavior.

•IdentifyfourTier2words.

•Prepareacuecardwithapartner.


Usetheseless…

•“Doesanybodyknowwhat_____means?”

•Havingstudents“lookitup”inatypicaldictionaryanduseinasentenceafterthat.

•Tellingstudentsto“usecontextclues”asaprimarystrategy

•Studentsguessingthedefinition

•Copyingfromdictionaryorglossary

•Rotememorizationwithoutcontext


Questions?


Utilizingonlinetoolsinacademicandcontent

vocabularyinstruction


TeachingELLsinK-12

•HighexpectationsfromELLstudentsinK-12

•Mainstreamsubjects(science,socialstudies,math,etc.)

•PrintedschoolEnglish:About85,000words(Nagy&Anderson,1984)

•15%chancesofincidentalvocabularylearning(Swanborn&deGlopper,1999)

•Widereading(Marzano,Pickering,&Pollock,2001)

•Lackofsystematicvocabularyinstruction(Biemiller,2001;McKeown&Curtis,1987)

•Recyclingthevocabularywordsorspacingthelearning


OverviewofTopics

Vocabgrabber

Wordsift

Instagrok

Tagxedo


ShiftinVocabularyInstruction

•Alignmentwithcurricularmaterialsandinstruction

•Accesstogradelevelcomplextextacrosscontentareas(science,socialstudies,etc.)

•Transferrablevocabularyacrossgradelevels

•Assessmentonthemeaningofkeycommonterms

•RecognitionofTier2wordsfromthetext(Beck&McKeown,1985)

•Contentcompatibleandacademicvocabulary


TiersofVocabulary(Beck&McKeown,1985)

•Tier1:Basicwordslikesightwords,earlyreadingwords,andsomeof

generalservicelist,andeverydayconversationwords.

•Tier2:Contentcompatible,highfrequencyvocabularywithmultiple

meanings

•AcademicWordList(Coxhead,2002)

•BringingWordstoLife(Beck,McKeown,&Kucan,2002)

•Tier3:Lowinfrequency&content-specific


ExamplesofWords

•Tier3:Photosynthesis,heritage,Loyalists,&axis

•Tier2:Classify,conduct,access,method,&declaration

•Tier1:Dog,run,family,bank&tree


ScienceText

Behaviorisanindividual'sresponsetoitsenvironment.Itisimportanttoseparateunlearnedfromlearned

behavior.Instinctisunlearnedbehavior.Instinctisinherited.Itispassedfromparenttooffspring.Another

nameforinstinctisinnatebehavior.Someanimalslearnbyobservingothers.Buttheskillstheyacquireinthat

wayarelearned,notinnate.Someinnatebehavioristheresultofhormonesreleasedinthebody.Behaviorthat

canbechangedislearnedbehavior.Onetypeoflearnedbehavioriscalledimprinting.Imprintingisthedeep

rapidlearningwhichgoesoninanewbornornewlyhatchedanimal.Imprintingisdemonstratedmost

surprisinglywhenhumansareimprintedwiththepersonwhofeedsthemandsoothesthem.Experimentswith

imprintinghaveresultedinyounganimalsacceptingotheranimalsandevennon-livingobjectsassubstitute

parents.Anothertypeoflearnedbehavioriscalledconditioning.Conditioningisaformoftraining.Animalscan

beconditionedtoperformincertainwaysbyarewardandpunishmenttechnique.Performinganimalshave

beenconditionedtorespondtofood,touch,andthevoiceofthetrainer.Occasionallyanimalsthatperform

unexpectedtasksaredisplayedtothepublic.Amorescientificexampleofconditioningwasshownbythe

RussianscientistIvanPavlov.Heobservedthatdogsproducelargeamountsofsalivaatthesightoffood.He

begantosignalwithabelleachtimehefedtheanimals.Eventuallythedogswouldsalivateatthesoundofa

bell,eveniffooddidnotappear.


VOCABGRABBER

Textanalysistool

MostusefulvocabularylistforELLs

(vocabulary)

Domain-specificwords(relevance)

VisualThesaurus


WordSift

DevelopedbyStanfordUniversity

Toolforwordcloud

Themostfrequentlyusedwordslargeinsize

Conceptformationthroughimages,videos,andtheVisualThesaurus


CADEMIC

WORDLIST

AWL


GENERAL

SERVICE

LIST-GSL


Imprinting

Amoose

imprintingwith

itscaregiver.


SCIENCE

WORDS-

GSL


WhatcanyoudowithInstagrok?

Researchoneducationwebsites

Customizethetopicwithfacts,links,pictures,andvideos

Interactivewordmap

Difficultyslider

PinyournotesorpicturestoyourGrok

Authenticmaterials

Glossary&quizzes


TagxedoasaWordCloudTool


Tagxedo[tag-SEE-doh]

•Createsawordcloudbasedonanimageyouchooseorupload.

•Activitiesbasedonwordcloudprinted

•Createawordcloudbasedonatopicandpresentittotheclass.Pickwordsthatyou

thinkarethemostimportantones.

•Whichwordsdidyoulearnbetterthanothers?Createatagxedoimage.

•Selectanimageofaword/object/conceptandcreateawordcloud


Questions?


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