Instrumental music in the sixteenth century
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Instrumental Music in the Sixteenth Century. Consort or chest — homogeneous groupings. Recorders (bas) Double reeds shawms, racketts (haut) crumhorns, dulcians (bas) — capped reeds Cornett and sackbut V iol or viola da gamba (bas). Instruments. “Broken consort”.

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Consort or chest homogeneous groupings
Consort or chest — homogeneous groupings

  • Recorders (bas)

  • Double reeds

    • shawms, racketts (haut)

    • crumhorns, dulcians (bas) — capped reeds

  • Cornett and sackbut

  • Viol or viola da gamba (bas)



Broken consort
“Broken consort”

  • Combines various families

  • Standard broken consort included recorder and plucked and bowed strings


Keyboard instruments in the sixteenth century
Keyboard instruments in the sixteenth century

  • Clavichord — strings activated by tangents attached to opposite ends of keys

  • Harpsichord — strings plucked by quills set in jacks

  • Organ — portative, positive, and church types


Plucked string instruments
Plucked string instruments

  • Lute

  • Archlutes at lower pitches

    • theorbo

    • chitarrone

  • Vihuela


Tablature
Tablature

  • Special notation for plucked strings

    • shows placement of fingers on fingerboard rather than pitch

    • rhythm indicated by stems and flags above

  • Sometimes also used for keyboard music



Instruments with voices
Instruments with voices

  • Incidental doublings or substitutions

    • informally in secular music

    • church music with brass

  • Independent instrumental parts

    • lute song

    • consort song

    • songs with keyboard


Instrumental music derived from vocal genres
Instrumental music derived from vocal genres

  • Transcriptions or ornamented version of vocal pieces

  • Ricercar — polyphonic texture of motet

    • sometimes called fantasia

    • tiento — Spanish equivalent of ricercar

  • Canzona — from chanson type, features familiar style and clearly marked rhythm

  • England — “In nomine” based on c.f. from Benedictus of Taverner Missa Gloria tibi trinitas

  • Variations on vocal melodies


Dance music real or stylized
Dance music — real or stylized

  • Often in pairs

    • basse danse, branle — French

    • pavane and gaillarde — French (English pavan and galliard)

    • passamezzo and saltarello — Italian

  • Use of variation principle


Improvisatory types
Improvisatory types

  • Intonazione, prelude, preambulum — to tune and introduce more formal pieces

  • Fantasia — free improvisational style (term also used for ricercar type)

  • Toccata — virtuosic


Questions for discussion
Questions for discussion

  • What elements of instrumental practice in the sixteenth century are closest to those of the preceding centuries? Which anticipated later instrumental usage in the periods of common practice?

  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of tablature notation compared to staff notation?

  • How would humanist thought and sound ideals have changed the practice of instrumental music in the church compared to previous centuries?

  • What ideas did vocal music contribute to instrumental musical structures and processes in the sixteenth century? What did dance contribute?


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