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ENERGY & ENZYMES

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ENERGY & ENZYMES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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ENERGY & ENZYMES. LIFE PROCESSES REQUIRE ENERGY. Energy = the ability to move or change matter. What are some forms of energy?. Light Heat Chemical Electrical. From food webs to the life of a cell. energy. energy. energy. organic molecules → ATP & organic molecules.

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life processes require energy
LIFE PROCESSES REQUIREENERGY
  • Energy = the ability to move or change matter.
what are some forms of energy
What are some forms of energy?
  • Light
  • Heat
  • Chemical
  • Electrical
flow of energy through life

organic molecules→ATP & organic molecules

solar energy→ATP& organic molecules

organic molecules→ATP & organic molecules

sun

Flow of energy through life
  • Life is built on chemical reactions
    • transforming energy from one form to another
chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
  • Process in which bonds between atoms are broken, and new ones are formed.
  • This produces one or more different substances.
chemical equations
Chemical Equations

Reactants: The starting materials for a chemical reaction.

Products: The substances that form after the reaction.

Follow a specific format

  • ReactantsProducts
  • NaCl Na+ + Cl-
metabolism

Metabolism

All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism.

metabolism1
Metabolism
  • Chemical reactions of life
    • Bond must form between molecules
      • Occurs through dehydration synthesis
      • Dehydration synthesis: A chemical reaction that buildsup molecules by losingwater molecules.
      • Anabolic reactions – Building up molecules from smaller units - Requires an input of energy
  • That’s why they’re calledanabolicsteroids!
metabolism2
Metabolism
  • Bonds also must break between molecules
    • Occurs through hydrolysis
    • Hydrolysis: chemical reaction that breaks down molecules by adding water molecules e.g. starch into glucose
    • Digestion
    • Catabolic reactions – Breaking down of molecules into smaller units
chemical reactions energy

digesting molecules= LESS organization=lower energy state

building molecules= MORE organization=higher energy state

Chemical reactions & energy
  • Some chemical reactions release energy
    • exergonic
  • Some chemical reactions require inputof energy
    • endergonic
energy is needed to start a chemical reaction energy
Energy is needed to start a chemical reactionENERGY
  • Activation Energy: The energy needed to start a chemical reaction.
enzymes help reactions occur
Enzymes help reactions occur
  • Enzymes: substances that increase the speed of chemical reactions.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XTUm-75-PL4
enzymes
Enzymes:
  • are Proteins
  • are Catalysts
  • are in YOUR cells catalyzing reactions RIGHT NOW
  • Help you maintain homeostasis
  • Are specifically shaped by type
  • Work on substrates
    • Substrate: substance upon which enzymes work
  • Have active sites (part the substrate fits into)
some common enzymes
Some common enzymes:
  • Amylase
  • Catalase
  • Sucrase
  • DNA Polymerase
  • Lipase
  • Protease
naming conventions
Naming conventions
  • Enzymes named for reaction they catalyze
    • sucrase breaks down sucrose
    • proteases break down proteins
    • lipases break down lipids
    • DNA polymerase builds DNA
      • adds nucleotides to DNA strand
    • pepsin breaks down proteins (polypeptides)
how does an enzyme work
How does an enzyme work?
  • Step 1: Enzyme attaches to its specific substrate (sucrase attaches with sucrose)
  • Step 2: At the active site, the enzyme and the substrate interact in a way that reduces activation energy of the reaction
  • Step 3: The reaction is complete when products form. The enzyme is now free and goes an acts on a new substrate.
lock and key model
Lock and Key model
  • Simplistic model of enzyme action
    • substrate fits into 3-D structure of enzyme’ active site
      • H bonds between substrate & enzyme
    • like “key fits into lock”
some things can make enzymes work faster or not at all
Some things can make enzymes work FASTER or NOT AT ALL
  • Temperature: Enzymes work at optimal temperatures. If the temperature is too high or too low, it may change the shape of the enzyme so it won’t work.
  • pH: Values outside of the preferred range of enzymes may cause bonds to break and then the enzyme can’t work.
temperature

What’shappening here?!

37°

Temperature

reaction rate

temperature

enzymes and temperature

37°C

70°C

Enzymes and temperature
  • Different enzymes function in different organisms in different environments

hot springbacteria enzyme

human enzyme

reaction rate

temperature

(158°F)

slide25

What’shappening here?!

pH

pepsin

trypsin

pepsin

reaction rate

trypsin

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

pH

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