Energy enzymes
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ENERGY & ENZYMES PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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ENERGY & ENZYMES. LIFE PROCESSES REQUIRE ENERGY. Energy = the ability to move or change matter. What are some forms of energy?. Light Heat Chemical Electrical. From food webs to the life of a cell. energy. energy. energy. organic molecules → ATP & organic molecules.

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ENERGY & ENZYMES

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Energy enzymes

ENERGY & ENZYMES


Life processes require energy

LIFE PROCESSES REQUIREENERGY

  • Energy = the ability to move or change matter.


What are some forms of energy

What are some forms of energy?

  • Light

  • Heat

  • Chemical

  • Electrical


From food webs to the life of a cell

From food webs to the life of a cell

energy

energy

energy


Flow of energy through life

organic molecules→ATP & organic molecules

solar energy→ATP& organic molecules

organic molecules→ATP & organic molecules

sun

Flow of energy through life

  • Life is built on chemical reactions

    • transforming energy from one form to another


Chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions

  • Process in which bonds between atoms are broken, and new ones are formed.

  • This produces one or more different substances.


Chemical equations

Chemical Equations

Reactants: The starting materials for a chemical reaction.

Products: The substances that form after the reaction.

Follow a specific format

  • ReactantsProducts

  • NaCl Na+ + Cl-


Metabolism

Metabolism

All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism.


Metabolism1

Metabolism

  • Chemical reactions of life

    • Bond must form between molecules

      • Occurs through dehydration synthesis

      • Dehydration synthesis: A chemical reaction that buildsup molecules by losingwater molecules.

      • Anabolic reactions – Building up molecules from smaller units - Requires an input of energy

  • That’s why they’re calledanabolicsteroids!


Metabolism2

Metabolism

  • Bonds also must break between molecules

    • Occurs through hydrolysis

    • Hydrolysis: chemical reaction that breaks down molecules by adding water molecules e.g. starch into glucose

    • Digestion

    • Catabolic reactions – Breaking down of molecules into smaller units


Chemical reactions energy

digesting molecules= LESS organization=lower energy state

building molecules= MORE organization=higher energy state

Chemical reactions & energy

  • Some chemical reactions release energy

    • exergonic

  • Some chemical reactions require inputof energy

    • endergonic


Energy is needed to start a chemical reaction energy

Energy is needed to start a chemical reactionENERGY

  • Activation Energy: The energy needed to start a chemical reaction.


Enzymes help reactions occur

Enzymes help reactions occur

  • Enzymes: substances that increase the speed of chemical reactions.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XTUm-75-PL4


Enzymes

Enzymes:

  • are Proteins

  • are Catalysts

  • are in YOUR cells catalyzing reactions RIGHT NOW

  • Help you maintain homeostasis

  • Are specifically shaped by type

  • Work on substrates

    • Substrate: substance upon which enzymes work

  • Have active sites (part the substrate fits into)


Some common enzymes

Some common enzymes:

  • Amylase

  • Catalase

  • Sucrase

  • DNA Polymerase

  • Lipase

  • Protease


Naming conventions

Naming conventions

  • Enzymes named for reaction they catalyze

    • sucrase breaks down sucrose

    • proteases break down proteins

    • lipases break down lipids

    • DNA polymerase builds DNA

      • adds nucleotides to DNA strand

    • pepsin breaks down proteins (polypeptides)


Activation energy with and without an enzyme

Activation Energy with and without an enzyme


How does an enzyme work

How does an enzyme work?

  • Step 1: Enzyme attaches to its specific substrate (sucrase attaches with sucrose)

  • Step 2: At the active site, the enzyme and the substrate interact in a way that reduces activation energy of the reaction

  • Step 3: The reaction is complete when products form. The enzyme is now free and goes an acts on a new substrate.


Lock and key model

Lock and Key model

  • Simplistic model of enzyme action

    • substrate fits into 3-D structure of enzyme’ active site

      • H bonds between substrate & enzyme

    • like “key fits into lock”


Some things can make enzymes work faster or not at all

Some things can make enzymes work FASTER or NOT AT ALL

  • Temperature: Enzymes work at optimal temperatures. If the temperature is too high or too low, it may change the shape of the enzyme so it won’t work.

  • pH: Values outside of the preferred range of enzymes may cause bonds to break and then the enzyme can’t work.


Temperature

What’shappening here?!

37°

Temperature

reaction rate

temperature


Enzymes and temperature

37°C

70°C

Enzymes and temperature

  • Different enzymes function in different organisms in different environments

hot springbacteria enzyme

human enzyme

reaction rate

temperature

(158°F)


Energy enzymes

What’shappening here?!

pH

pepsin

trypsin

pepsin

reaction rate

trypsin

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

pH


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