Turbomolecular pump Vahid Bahrami Yekta MBE LAB UVIC. Pressure. 1 atmosphere ~ 1 bar ~ 760 mm Hg ~ 760 torr ~ 100,000 Pa Ion gauges read in mbar i.e. 1x10 -10 mbar = 1x10 -13 atm. Lower Pressure. 1x10 -4 mbar. 1x10 -8 mbar. Rough Vacuum. High Vacuum. Ultra High Vacuum.
1 atmosphere ~ 1 bar ~ 760 mm Hg ~ 760 torr ~ 100,000 Pa
Ion gauges read in mbar i.e. 1x10-10 mbar = 1x10-13 atm.
Ultra High Vacuum
The gas in a vacuum system can be in a viscous state, in a molecular state or in a state which is intermediate between these two.
When a system is brought from the atmospheric pressure to "high vacuum", the gas in the system goes through all these states. The mean free path of the gas molecules is very small at atmospheric pressure so that the flow of the gas is limited by its viscosity.
At low pressures where the mean free path of the molecules is similar to the dimensions of the vacuum enclosure, the flow of the gas is governed by viscosity as well as by molecular phenomena; this is the intermediate flow.
At very low pressures where the mean free path is much larger than the dimensions of the vacuum enclosure, the flow is molecular.
Viscous > 10-4
Molecular < 10-6
As the gas molecules enter through the inlet, the rotor, which has a number of angled blades, hits the molecules. Thus the mechanical energy of the blades is transferred to the gas molecules.
With this newly acquired momentum, the gas molecules enter into the gas transfer holes in the stator. This leads them to the next stage where they again collide with the rotor surface, and this process is continued, finally leading them outwards through the exhaust.
– Very high speed rotor blades have close-mating stator blades.
• Slight imbalances can cause vibration and bearing wear problems.
• Sudden blast of atmospheric pressure can bend the blades down, causing catastrophic failure, “crashing the pump.”
– Lubrication of the high speed rotor is an engineering problem.
• Circulating oil is most reliable, but pump must be right-side-up.
• Grease-lubricated bearings are less reliable, but allow pump to be placed at any orientation.
– Too high of a pressure will cause aerodynamic lift and drag.
• Aerodynamic lift can bend blades, causing catastrophic failure.
TURBOVAC MAG line which has a number of angled blades, hits the molecules. Thus the mechanical energy of the blades is transferred to the gas molecules.