The reluctant fundamentalist
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The Reluctant Fundamentalist. The Pakistan-U.S. relationship. Learning Objective. To understand some key points about the relationship between America and Pakistan. To explain some of the reasons why Changez’s character feels bitterness toward America. What do you know?.

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The Reluctant Fundamentalist

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The reluctant fundamentalist

The Reluctant Fundamentalist

The Pakistan-U.S. relationship


Learning objective

Learning Objective

  • To understand some key points about the relationship between America and Pakistan.

  • To explain some of the reasons why Changez’s character feels bitterness toward America.


What do you know

What do you know?


Pakistan in the world

Pakistan in the world


Lahore

Lahore


Changez s shame

Changez’s shame

  • Changez feels ashamed of Lahore’s decline from a majestic, imperial capital to a poorly run and funded shadow of its former greatness.

  • As Changez mentions, Lahore owes its rich history to the many empires within which it operated.

  • Changez comes to feel strongly that Pakistan’s reliance on U.S. aid is cause for shame.


The mughal empire 1526 1857

The Mughal Empire-1526-1857

  • These were Lahore’s ‘glory days’.

  • The empire was known for its great architecture and artistic accomplishments, including the TajMahal in India.

  • The Mughal empire declined in the middle of the 19th century.


Taj mahal

TajMahal


More recent history

More recent history

  • Pakistan became part of the British Empire in 1857 and remained so until the British Partition of India and Pakistan in 1947.

  • Lahore suffered greatly during this time because of initial confusion about the India-Pakistan border. Violence broke out as Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs attempted to move from one territory to another.


The u s and pakistan

The U.S. and Pakistan

  • Prior to the September 11 attacks in 2001, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia were key supporters of the Taliban in Afghanistan.

  • America placed sanctions on Pakistan and India in 1998 for nuclear testing.


9 11 and the war on terror

9/11 and the War on Terror

  • On September, 2001, the United States experienced a terrorist attack directed at several major landmarks.

  • Two of the four highjacked jets crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Centre in New York City, eventually causing them to collapse.

  • Nearly 3,000 victims and the 19 hijackers died in the attacks.


President bush

President Bush

  • The next day, President Bush declared the terrorist attacks acts of war.

  • That same day, the United States received the support of Britain, Pakistan, NATO and the UN Security Council.

  • In the next two days, President Bush approved a military plan to combat the Taliban, who were blamed for the attacks,in Afghanistan.


Pakistan s support

Pakistan’s support

  • Pakistan continued to support the US by demanding that the Taliban surrender Osama bin Laden, the suspected mastermind of the attacks.

  • Pakistan provided the U.S. a number of military airports and bases for its attack on Afghanistan, along with other logistical support.

  • The United States lifted sanctions on Pakistan and India that had been in place since 1998 because of both country’s nuclear tests.


What did pakistan get

What did Pakistan get?

  • In return for their military support, Pakistan:

    • Had sanctions lifted

    • Has received about $10 billion in U.S. aid since 2001, primarily militarily.

    • In June 2004, President George W. Gush designated Pakistan as a major non-NATO ally making it eligible, among other things, to purchase advanced American military technology.


Changez and the war on terror

Changez and the War on Terror

‘Afghanistan was Pakistan’s neighbour, our friend, and a fellow Muslim nation besides, and the sight of what I took to be the beginning of its invasion by your countrymen caused me to tremble with fury.’ p. 114


Questions

Questions

  • What parts of Pakistani history are important to the novel?

  • Why does Changez feel proud but also ashamed of his home city, Lahore?

  • How did September 11 change the relationship between America and Pakistan? What was the relationship like before September 11? What changed?


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