Studying our inclusive practices course experiences of students with disabilities
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Studying Our Inclusive Practices: Course Experiences of Students with Disabilities. Katherine Deibel Computer Science and Engineering University of Washington, Seattle. This is a Methodology Paper. More about: Research Challenges Data collection methods Analysis methods Less about:

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Studying our inclusive practices course experiences of students with disabilities

Studying Our Inclusive Practices:Course Experiences of Students with Disabilities

Katherine Deibel

Computer Science and Engineering

University of Washington, Seattle

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


This is a methodology paper

This is a Methodology Paper

  • More about:

    • Research Challenges

    • Data collection methods

    • Analysis methods

  • Less about:

    • Presenting findings

    • Interpreting findings

How to best study the course experiences of CS students with disabilities

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Outline

Outline

  • Motivation: Inclusive Education

  • Methodology

    • Research challenges

    • Interview study design

  • Implementation and Early Findings

    • Implementation Details

    • Early findings

  • Conclusion and Future Work

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Inclusive education

Inclusive Education

  • Incorporate accommodations into one’s educational practices [Loreman, 2005]

    • Minimizes accommodation requests

    • Proactive instead of reactive

  • Focus on all forms of disabilities

Support allstudents of all abilities in all learning situations

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


What about computing education

What about Computing Education?

How successful are we at including students with disabilities?

How do we answer that question?

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Approach

Approach

Go straight to the source:

Students with disabilities in CS courses

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Definition challenges

Definition Challenges

  • Disability is medically and legally defined

  • Not all “disabled” people identify as having a disability

    • To avoid stigmatization (e.g., depression, learning disabilities, etc.)

    • Cultural beliefs (e.g., Deaf culture)

  • Implications:

    • Study should explore all disabilities

    • Calls for participants need to be carefully worded

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Call for participation

Call for Participation

Do you have a physical, mobility, psychiatric, or learning disability?

Are you Deaf or hard of hearing?

Do you have ADD/HD, depression, or anxiety issues?

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Visibility challenges

Visibility Challenges

  • Not all disabilities are readily visible

  • Disability services keep lists of students registered as having a disability:

    • Students must request accommodations

    • Students with invisible disabilities tend to delay requesting accommodations [Cory, 2005]

  • Implications:

    • Cannot rely solely on students registered with disability services

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Recruitment of participants

Recruitment of Participants

  • Do not rely on list of students from disability services

  • Recruit from the entire course

    • Course mailing lists

    • Course webs

    • Course bulletin boards

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Population challenges

Population Challenges

  • Only 9.8% of U.S. college freshmen have a disability [Scott et al., 2004]

    • CS undergraduates: 7.2% [NSF, 2004]

    • Represents a wide diversity of disabilities

  • Implications:

    • Expect a small number of participants

    • Participants will have different disabilities

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Achieving a large sample

Achieving a Large Sample

  • Recruit from multiple courses

  • Recruit from multiple terms

  • Recruit across multiple institutions

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Summary of challenges

Summary of Challenges

  • Difficulty in recruiting participants

  • Small number of participants

  • Unlikely to have multiple participants with the same disabilities

  • Multiple iterations of the study necessary to collect a large sample

  • Data validity is a concern

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


A qualitative approach

A Qualitative Approach

Semi-Structured Interviews

Illustrative Case Study

Grounded Theory Analysis

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Illustrative case study

Illustrative Case Study

  • In-depth investigation of a phenomenon

  • Looks at only a few instances

  • Develop theories to illustrate what is occurring in those instances

  • Theories generated can be explored in further studies

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Semi structured interviews

Semi-Structured Interviews

  • One-on-one interviews

  • Prepared questions are only a guide

  • Subject drives the conversation

  • Multiple interviews can be conducted

    • Captures changes over time

    • Allows exploration of a wide variety of topics

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Sample interview questions

Sample Interview Questions

  • How does your instructor run the course? What do you like? Not like?

  • How does your disability affect your education? How will it affect you in this course?

  • Assuming that your instructor(s) knew about your disability, how would you want them to respond to you as a student?

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Grounded theory

Grounded Theory

  • Analysis approach for qualitative data [Taylor & Bogdan, 1998]

  • Inductively develop themes from data

  • Occurs throughout the data collection process

    • Themes evolve as more data is analyzed

    • Interview questions are adapted to further explore and challenge themes

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Previous disability studies

Previous Disability Studies

  • Students with dyslexia

    [Edwards, 1994]

  • Invisible disabilities & accommodations [Cory, 2005]

  • Disability and Queer Women

    [Whitney, 2006]

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Implementation details

Implementation Details

  • Student interviewed twice

  • Two iterations have been completed

  • First Iteration (in paper):

    • Two participants

  • Second Iteration (recently conducted):

    • Two participants

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Observations

Observations

  • Many participants not registered with disability services

  • Richness of conversations

  • Many themes arise out of the data

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Identified themes

Identified Themes

  • Self-Advocacy

  • Family Support

  • Not Registering With Disability Services

  • Multimodal Presentation

  • Benefits of Online Course Artifacts

    • Access Breakdowns

    • Podcasting

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Theme course artifacts online

Theme: Course Artifacts Online

  • Availability of course slides, textbooks, and code produced in class noted as helpful:

    • Seth: bypasses hearing problem

    • Alan: reduces need for note taking

    • Pam:less anxiety if gets lost

    • Dave:less anxiety if misses lecture or gets behind in course

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Sub theme podcasting

Sub-Theme: Podcasting

  • Several courses at UW are now audio recorded and available as podcasts

  • Desirability of podcasts noted:

    • Seth:beneficial in other courses

    • Alan:alternative to notetaking and limited access tutorials

    • Dave:Never used podcasts in other courses

      Would have used for CS1

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Conclusions and future work

Conclusions and Future Work

  • Research challenges for this are exist

  • Methodology addresses the challenges

  • Rich data set to be analyzed further

  • For the future…

    • More interviews?

    • Helping researchers at other universities?

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • The participants

  • Sheryl Burgstahler and Rebecca Cory, DO-IT, University of Washington

  • British Computer Society

  • Graduate & Professional Student Senate, University of Washington

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Thank you

Thank you

Questions?

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Extra slides

Extra Slides

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Implementing inclusion

Implementing Inclusion

  • Implemented and studied with success at many schools [Clough & Corbett, 2000].

  • Numerous inclusion guides exist:

    • K-12: Loreman et al., 2005.

    • College: Burgstahler, 2005; Strange, 2000.

  • Involves good pedagogical practices:

    • Reflective learning, collaborative learning, attention to different learning styles, etc.

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Participants

Participants

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Theme self advocacy

Theme: Self-Advocacy

  • All participants viewed themselves as responsible for managing their disabilities

    • Alan: contacting faculty before start of term

    • Seth: sitting in best places for hearing, selecting study locations

    • Pam:monitoring anxiety, attending to deadlines

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Theme family support

Theme: Family Support

  • Families involved Alan and Seth in K-12 accommodation discussions

    • Alan: Parents intervened after accommodations fell through

  • Exceptions do exist:

    • Dave: Family denies existence of psychological conditions

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Theme disability services

Theme: Disability Services

  • All participants had invisible disabilities

  • Three not registered with disability services:

    • Seth is able to self-accommodate

    • Pam and Dave do not view selves as disabled

    • Similar to findings by Cory, 2005

  • Alan does register with disability services:

    • Accommodations: books on tape, electronic text

    • Has realized he needs the support

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Theme multimodal presentation

Theme: Multimodal Presentation

  • Beneficial if instructor presents material both orally and visually

    • Seth: bypasses hearing problem

    • Alan: potentially overwhelming if too much text is presented

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


Sub theme access breakdowns

Sub-Theme: Access Breakdowns

  • Access breakdowns are problematic:

    • Pam:TA never passed on password to textbook;

      Lost access to exercises

    • Alan:Course textbook decided at last minute

      Most lectures were software tutorials

      DVD tutorials available only at limited times in a specific lab

ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, UK


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