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Lecture 16. Senses. What do we respond to? Stimulus: Pain Mechanical Temperature Chemicals Electromagnetic Awareness of stimulus = _______________ Where are sensory receptors located? Interoceptors: Exteroceptors:. An interoceptor which monitors changes in blood pressure

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slide2
What do we respond to?
    • Stimulus:
      • Pain
      • Mechanical
      • Temperature
      • Chemicals
      • Electromagnetic
  • Awareness of stimulus = _______________
  • Where are sensory receptors located?
    • Interoceptors:
    • Exteroceptors:
slide3

An interoceptor which monitors changes in blood pressure

  • What kind of stimulus do these respond to?
  • A chemoreceptor monitoring changes in hydrogen ion concentration within the body
slide4

Mechanoreceptors

  • Respond to distortion of cell membrane
  • Baroreceptors – changes in internal pressure
  • Proprioceptors – position of limbs, extension of muscle
  • Hearing and equilibrium – inner ear
  • Tactile – touch, etc. integument
slide5

Receptors in the Integument

  • Nonencapsulated
      • Naked nerve endings
      • Merkel Discs
  • Encapsulated
    • Meissner’s Corpuscles
      • Tactile
      • Dermal papillae – hairless skin
    • Pacinian corpuscles – lamellated corpuscles
      • Dermis/hypodermis – deep pressure
      • Joint capsules
    • Ruffini endings – flattened capsule
      • Deep dermis, joints
      • Continuous deep pressure
pain sensations
Pain Sensations
  • Nociceptors = pain receptors
    • Tissue injury compounds
    • Free nerve endings
    • Stimulus:
      • excessive distension, muscle spasm, & inadequate blood flow
    • Little adaptation occurs
  • Acute (fast) vs. chronic (slow)
slide8
Exteroceptors - Chemoreception
  • Taste - Gustatory
    • Tongue, mouth pharynx and larynx
    • 4-5 chemical categories
  • Olfactory
    • Nasal passages
    • Response to many different compounds
slide9
Smell - Olfactory
  • Olfactory cells - epithelium in the upper nasal cavity
    • bind to specific odor molecules
    • cerebral cortex processes input
  • Limbic associations occur (‘It smells like…’)
slide10

Numbers- 5 million olfactory receptors.

Size and Shape- similar to a postage stamp.

Location- roof of the nasal cavity.

Cell Division- replaced every 60 days.

Sensitivity- 1,000 different types of receptors

slide11
Odorants bind to receptors Depolarization
  • Olfactory glands  mucus
  • Rapid adaptation:
    • 50% 1 min
  • Highly sensitive
slide12
Gustatory – Taste:
  • Dissolved substances
  • 10,000 taste buds found on tongue, soft palate & larynx
  • sides of circumvallate & fungiform papillae
  • 3 cell types: supporting, receptor & basal cells
  • Four + responses:
    • Sweet – okay
    • Salty - okay
    • Sour ??
    • Bitter ?! – poison?
    • umami
    • water
gustatory pathway
Gustatory Pathway
  • First-order gustatory fibers found in cranial nerves
    • VII (facial) serves anterior 2/3 of tongue
    • IX (glossopharyngeal) serves posterior 1/3 of tongue
    • X (vagus) serves palate & epiglottis
  • Signals travel to thalamus or limbic system & hypothalamus
  • Taste fibers extend from the thalamus to the primary gustatory area on parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex
    • providing conscious perception of taste
slide15
Ear -Mechanoreceptors
  • Sound - hearing
  • Orientation and motion in space – equilibrium
    • Gravitational equlib
    • rotational equilibrium
  • VIII cranial nerve
    • ? name
slide16

Ear: 3 regions

  • External ear
    • Auricle:
    • External acoustic meatus  ear drum
      • Ceruminous glands  cerumen
  • Middle ear
    • Tympanic membrane
    • Auditory ossicles
    • Auditory tube
  • Inner ear
    • Bony labyrinth encloses membranous labyrinth
slide18

Middle ear:

  • Ossicles – malleus, incus, stapes
  •  oval window of inner ear
  • Auditory tube
slide19
Inner Ear:
  • Bony labrynth w/i petrous portion of temporal bone
  • Membranous labrynth – contain endolymph
    • Vestibular complex
      • Utricle + saccule: static + gravitational equilib.
        • Hair cells located at maculae – embedded in gelatinous mass containing CaCO3 crystals = otoliths
      • Semicircular canals: rotational equilibrium
        • Hair cells in ampullae – cilia embedded in cupula
slide21

Cristae – within ampulla

  • When head moves, the attached semicircular ducts and hair cells move with it
    • endolymph fluid does not
    • Cilia of hair cells enclosed cupula bend
close up of macula
Close-up of Macula
  • Otolithic membrane slides  Movement of stereocilia + kinocilium alters release of neurotransmitter onto the vestibular branches of the vestibulocochler nerve
slide23
Cochlea: 3 fluid filled channels
    • scala vestibuli, scala tympani and cochlear duct
  • Sound tranduced by Organ of Corti
section thru one turn of cochlea
Section thru one turn of Cochlea
  • Partitions that separate the channels are Y shaped
    • bony shelf of central modiolus
    • vestibular membrane above & basilar membrane below form the central fluid filled chamber (cochlear duct)
  • Fluid vibrations affect hair cells in cochlear duct
slide25
Motion in vestibular/tympanic duct  basilar membrane moved  distortion of sterocilia against tectoral membrane  neural impulse
  • Pitch: where in cochlea
  • Amplitude: force of motion
slide26
Eye – Eyeball + Accessory Structures
  • Accessory Structures
    • Eyelids = palpebrae
      • Tarsal glands secrete sebum
    • Extrinsic muscles (6 of them)
    • Lacrimal glands
    • Conjunctiva – epithelial layers covering anterior edges of eye – eyelid to eyeball
slide28
Eye muscles
  • Superior and Inferior rectus
  • Lateral and medial rectus
  • Superior and inferior oblique
  • Control: CN III, IV, VI
slide29
Conjunctiva

Palpebral conjunctiva

Bulbar conjunctiva

Stratified squamous epith

Mucous membrane

Conjunctiva

palpebrae

slide30
Eyeball:

Three Tunics

  • Fibrous Tunic (outer layer)
    • Sclera and cornea
  • Vascular Tunic (middle layer)
    • Iris and choroid
  • Nervous Tunic (inner layer)
    • Retina

Cavities

  • Anterior cavity – aqueous humor
    • Two cavities
    • Drained via Canal of Schlemm
  • lens
  • Posterior cavity (vitreous chamber) – vitreous humor
slide32
Radial muscles – sympathetic – dilate pupil
  • Circular muscles: parasympathetic – constrict pupil
slide33
Avascular, crystalline protein
  • Suspensory ligaments attach lens to ciliary process
  • Ciliary muscle controls tension on ligaments & lens
cataracts
Cataracts
  • Leading cause worldwide of blindness.
  • A lens becomes cloudy or opaque.
  • Caused by
    • Natural aging. 50 or over.
    • Drug reactions.
    • Injury.
    • Diabetes.
    • UVB damage.
  • At risk
    • Smokers (2X).
    • Guys named “Phil” or “Rupert”.
  • Treatment- surgery, removal and replacement of the lens.
nervous tunic retina
Nervous Tunic -- Retina
  • Posterior 3/4 of eyeball
  • Optic disc
    • optic nerve exiting back of eyeball = blindspot
  • Central retina BV
    • fan out to supply nourishment to retina
    • visible for inspection
      • hypertension & diabetes
  • Detached retina
    • trauma (boxing)
      • fluid between layers
      • distortion or blindness

View with Ophthalmoscope

slide37
Rods & Cones--Photoreceptors
  • Rods----rod shaped – 120 million
    • shades of gray in dim light
    • discriminates shapes & movements
    • distributed along periphery
  • Cones----cone shaped – 6 million
    • sharp, color vision
    • Concentrated at fovea of macula lutea
major processes of image formation
Major Processes of Image Formation
  • Refraction of light
    • by cornea & lens
    • light rays must fall upon the retina
  • Accommodation of the lens
    • changing shape of lens so that light is focused
  • Constriction of the pupil
    • less light enters the eye
visual fields
Visual fields
  • Left occipital lobe receives visual images from right side of an object through impulses from nasal 1/2 of the right eye and temporal 1/2 of the left eye
  • Left occipital lobe sees right 1/2 of the world
  • Fibers from nasal 1/2 of each retina cross in optic chiasm
accommodation the lens
Accommodation & the Lens
  • Convex lens refract light rays towards each other
  • Lens of eye is convex on both surfaces
  • View a distant object
    • lens is nearly flat by pulling of suspensory ligaments
  • View a close object
    • ciliary muscle is contracted & decreases the pull of the suspensory ligaments on the lens
    • elastic lens thickens as the tension is removed from it
    • increase in curvature of lens is called accommodation
abnormalities of the eye
Abnormalities of the Eye

Distance Vision

Nearsighted

Close objects are seen clearly.

Long eyeball causes image to focus in front of the retina.

Farsighted

Distant objects are seen clearly.

Short eyeball causes image to focus behind retina.

Astigmatism

Image is blurred.

Irregular curvature of the cornea or lens causes light rays to focus unevenly.

abnormalities of the eye43
Abnormalities of the Eye

Color blindness

Colors cannot be distinguished.

75% of people have poor green perception.

8-10% of males, <1% females.

X-Linked.

A lack of or reduced number of one of the cone types.

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