We Discover the Galaxies
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We Discover the Galaxies The nature of the nebulae the “island universe hypothesis” --- PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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We Discover the Galaxies The nature of the nebulae the “island universe hypothesis” ---

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We Discover the Galaxies

The nature of the nebulae

the “island universe hypothesis” ---

The “analogy (of the nebulae) with the system of stars in which we find ourselves ... is in perfect agreement with the concept that these elliptical objects are just island universes – in other words, Milky Ways”

Kant 1755

Galactic or Extragalactic? -- the nature of the “nebulae”

The Shapley – Curtis Debate 1920

Resolution of the controversy -- Cepheid variables in M31 and M33

Hubble 1923 – 24 using the new Mt Wilson 100-inch telescope


Morphological Classification of Galaxies -- Hubble

Spirals, Ellipticals and Irregulars

Spiral Galaxies – normal and barred

Based on size of nuclear bulge and openess of the arms

Sa -- large bulge,

tightly wound arms


Spiral Galaxies

Type Sb


Spiral galaxies -- Types Sc and Sd

small bulge, very open fragmented arms


Barred Spirals


Elliptical Galaxies -- giants and dwarfs

Classification based on degree of ellipticity or flattening


Irregular Galaxies


Magellanic Irregulars


Hubble’s Tuning Fork Diagram


The Milky Way ??

Edge-on Sc

Milky Way -- infrared

SBbc type


Galaxy Clustering

Local Group of Galaxies --

3 spirals + > 30 small Irr and dEll

Virgo Cluster


Rotation Curves and the Missing Mass


Gravitational Lensing


Einstein ring 


Missing Mass in Galaxy Clusters and

missing mass in halos of galaxies ?

“cold dark matter” -- CDM

WIMPS (weakly interacting massive particles)

or

MACHOS (massive compact halo objects)


The Distance Scale of the Universe

How do we determine the distances to the galaxies (and stars)

Direct and indirect methods

1. Stellar parallaxes -- out to 500 pc with Hipparcos - direct

2. Moving cluster method -- 30pc, the solar neighborhood - direct

3. Cluster main sequence fitting -- out to several kpc – indirect

4. spectroscopic parallaxes – out to several kpc – indirect, calibration of brightest stars, Cepheids and RR Lyr

5. Period-Luminosity relation for Cepheids and RR Lyr – indirect

RR Lyr --- 5 – 100 kpc

Cepheids – 5 – 30 Mpc

Brightest stars – out ot 30 Mpc

6. Supernovae Type Ia out to 1000 Mpc ! -- indirect


Application

Parallaxes -- solar neighborhood, Milky Way

Moving cluster -- solar neighborhood

Cluster MS fitting -- Milky Way

Spec. parallaxes -- Milky Way, Magellanic Clouds

RR Lyr – Milky Way, Mag Clouds, Local Group

Cepheids and brightest stars – Local Group, Virgo Cluster

Type Ia --Virgo cluster, Hubble flow and the Universe

Redshift relation (Hubble Law ) -- Universe


Distance – Redshift Relation or Hubble Law

Slipher at Lowell Obs first noticed the redshift several years earlier


A linear relation

Vel = constant x Distance

Constant = slope – km/sec/Mpc (Hubble Constant)

V = H x D

The inverse ? 1/H

Time -- expansion age of the Universe


H = 73 – 75 km/s/Mpc and

1/H ~ 13 – 15 x 109 yrs


Galaxy Clusters, Superclusters and Large Scale Structure


Large Scale Structure of the Universe from redshift surveys


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