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Chapter 1 Overview. On-line materials. Ch 4 Processor. Control Unit. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). Instructions Data Information. Instructions Data Information. Ch 1 – Overview Ch 2 – Internet & WWW Ch 3 – Application Software Ch 8 – System Software.

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Chapter 1 Overview

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Chapter 1Overview

On-line materials

Ch 4


Control Unit

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)



Ch 1 – Overview

Ch 2 – Internet & WWW

Ch 3 – Application Software

Ch 8 – System Software

Control Unit

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)



Ch 5


Ch 6




Ch 7

What Is a Computer?

Processes data into information

Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful


Raw facts, figures, and symbols

Produces and stores results

Stores for further use

Communicates to other users

and computers

  • Electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory


Raw facts, figures, and symbols


Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful

What are data and information?

Information processing cycle






What is hardware?


electric, electronic and mechanical components


Computer hardware includes:

  • Input devices

  • Output devices

  • Processing hardware (System unit)

  • Storage devices (magnetic, optical, electronic)

  • Media devices

  • Communication (network) devices

What is an input device?

Hardware used to enter data and instructions

PC camera





digital camera

What is an output device?

Hardware that conveys information to a user




  • Holds data, instructions, and information for future use

What is storage?

Storage media

  • Physical material on which data, instructions, and information are stored

Storage device

  • Records and retrieves items to and from a storage medium

  • What is the system unit?


Also called a Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer


Consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data

needed by those instructions

What is communications hardware?

Establishes a connection between two computers using a modem, cable, electric grid, telephone lines, wireless,and satellites


What are networks?Collections of computers and devices connected together via communication devices and transmission media

  • Worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals

  • What is the Internet?

Networks and the Internet

  • People use the Internet for a variety of reasons:

  • A social networking Web siteencourages members to share their interests, ideas, stories, photos, music, and videos with other users

What is the World Wide Web (WWW)?

Billions of documents, called Web pages, linked together on computers throughout the world

Web browser

Program used to access and view Web page

Search engine

Program used to select Web pages according to a criteria and evaluate them

Web site

Collection of related Web pages

Web page

Contains text, graphics, sound, or video and links to other Web pages

Consists of a seriesof instructions thattells the computerwhat to do and how to do it

Also called aprogram

  • What is software?


  • High-level language program (in C)

    swap intv[], int k){

    int temp;

    temp = v[k];

    v[k] = v[k+1];

    v[k+1] = temp;}

  • Assembly language program (for 80x86)




    movbyte ptr Place,'0'



    Machine code

    000000 00000 00101 0001000010000000

    000000 00100 00010 0001000000100000

What is software ( SW )?

Programs that control the operations of the computer – System Software

Programs that perform specific tasks for users – Application Software

  • Installing is the process of setting up software to work with the computer

What are the categories of computers?

Embedded Computers

Mobile Computers andMobile Devices

Personal Computers(desktop, laptop, notebook, tablet )

Game Consoles




  • A special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product

  • What is an embedded computer?

Embedded Computers

Small enough to fit in one hand

Used by mobile employees such as meter readers and delivery people

  • What is ahandheld (mobile) computer?

Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices

Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices

A smart phone isan Internet-enabledtelephone that usuallyprovides PDA capabilities

  • What aresmart phones?

  • What is eBook?

  • Amazon Kindle

  • What is iPad? Who is he?

A tablet PC

  • What is apersonal digital assistant (PDA)?

  • Provides personal organizer functions

    • Calendar

    • Appointment book

    • Address book

    • Calculator

    • Notepad

  • What is adesktop computer?

  • Designed so all of the components fit entirely on or under a desk or table

  • What is anotebook computer?

  • Portable, small enough to fit on your lap

  • Also called a laptop computer

Mobile computing device designed for single-player or multiplayer video games

Xbox-360, Sony play station, Nintendo, Wee

  • What aregame consoles?


A server controls access to network resources and provides centralized storage


MainframeVery powerful, expensive computer that supports thousands of connected users


SupercomputerThe fastest, most powerful, most expensive computer. Used for applications requiring complex mathematical calculations

  • Computer system includes

    • Hardware - the physical components of a computer

    • Software – programs to perform specific tasks

  • Computer architecture (outside view – what it does?)

  • Computer organization (inside view – how it does?)

  • What has to be added to get an Information System?

Elements of an Information System

Who are users of computers?

  • Home user

  • SOHO user

  • Mobile user

  • Power user

  • Enterprise user

Computer Applications in Society

Computer Applications in Society

Appreciating the Gift

Crime fighting

Tools for disabled


Paperless technologies

Transportation (efficiency and safety)

More efficient government


Management of economy

Fighting enemies

Appreciating the Gift

News, research

Distance education

Entertainment games, leisure

listen to music

Online shopping

Surfing WWW

Health management

Bank and invest

Watch movies

Computers add complexity

From natural to virtual

More consumerism

Public Safety

Impact on Labor Force

Impact on Environment

Weakening of local

communal life

Digital divide

Internet addiction

New kinds of crimes

Easy brainwashing

Advantages Disadvantages of Using Computers

  • Green computinginvolves reducing the electricity consumed and environmental waste generated when using a computer

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