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Brain. Meninges, ventricles, cerebrospinal fluid & blood supply Hindbrain and midbrain Forebrain Limbic system. Brain Description. Brain weighs 3 to 3.5 pounds Major portions -- brainstem, cerebrum, and cerebellum cerebrum is 83% of brain volume

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Brain
Brain

  • Meninges, ventricles, cerebrospinal fluid & blood supply

  • Hindbrain and midbrain

  • Forebrain

  • Limbic system


Brain description
Brain Description

  • Brain weighs 3 to 3.5 pounds

  • Major portions -- brainstem, cerebrum, and cerebellum

    • cerebrum is 83% of brain volume

    • ___________________ contains 50% of the neurons


Brain1
Brain

Longitudinal fissure separates 2 cerebral hemispheres.


Meninges
Meninges

  • Dura mater

    • outer periosteal layer

    • inner meningeal layer

    • dural venous sinuses

    • dural septa

      • falx cerebri, falx cerebelli and tentorium cerebelli

    • dural hemorrhages

  • Arachnoid mater

  • Pia mater



Ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid
Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid

  • Internal chambers within the CNS

    • lateral ventricles

    • third ventricle

    • cerebral aqueduct

    • fourth ventricle

    • central canal of spinal cord

  • Lined with ependymal cells and contains ______



Cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal Fluid

  • Clear liquid fills ventricles and canals & bathes its external surface ________________________

  • Brain produces & absorbs about 500 ml/day

    • filtration of blood through choroid plexus

    • has more Na+ & Cl- but less K+,Ca+2, and proteins than plasma

  • Functions (3)

    • Buoyancy, protection, and chemical stability

  • Escapes from 4th ventricle to subarachnoid space

  • Drains from _________________________ into venous sinus



Blood brain and blood csf barriers
Blood-Brain and Blood-CSF Barriers

  • BBB - endothelium & perivascular astrocyte feet

    • permeable to lipid-soluble materials (alcohol, O2, CO2, caffeine, nicotine and anesthetics)

    • administer drugs through nasal sprays

    • Circumventricular organs – breeches in the system

      • Hypothalamus, Post. pituitary, Pineal, & Choroid plexus

      • monitoring of glucose, pH, osmolarity & others

      • may allow route for HIV virus to invade the brain

  • Blood-CSF barrier - choroid plexus is ependymal cells joined by _________________________



Medulla oblongata
Medulla Oblongata

  • 3 cm long

  • Ascending & descending tracts

  • CN nuclei (VIII, IX, X, XI, XII)

  • Nuclei for somatic and visceral sensory; somatic cerebellar relay

  • Cardiac, vasomotor, & respiratory centers

  • Reflex centers for coughing, sneezing, gagging, swallowing, vomiting, salivation, sweating, and movements of the tongue and head



Pons

  • Bulge in the brainstem, rostral to the medulla

  • Ascending sensory tracts

  • Descending motor tracts

  • Pathways in & out of cerebellum - peduncles

  • Nuclei concerned with sleep, hearing, balance, taste, eye movements, facial expression, facial sensation, respiration, swallowing, bladder control & posture

    • cranial nerves V, VI, VII, and VIII


Cerebellum
Cerebellum

  • Connected to brainstem by cerebellar peduncles

  • White matter _____________________

  • Folia?

  • Sits atop the 4th ventricle



Output from cerebellum
Output from Cerebellum

  • Smoothes muscle contractions, maintains muscle tone & posture, coordinates motions of different joints, aids in learning motor skills & coordinates eye movements


Midbrain
Midbrain

  • ____________________

  • Mes. aqueduct

  • CN III and IV

    • eye movement

  • Cerebral peduncles hold corticospinal tract

  • Tegmentum connects to cerebellum & helps control fine movements through red nucleus

  • Substantia nigra sends inhibitory signals to basal nuclei & thalamus


Superior inferior colliculus
Superior & Inferior Colliculus

  • Tectum (4 nuclei) called corpora quadrigemina

    • superior colliculus

    • inferior colliculus


Reticular formation
Reticular Formation

  • Clusters of gray matter scattered throughout pons, midbrain & medulla

  • Regulate balance & posture

    • relaying information from eyes & ears to cerebellum

    • gaze centers allow you to track moving object

  • Includes cardiac & vasomotor centers

  • Analgesic pathways

  • Regulates sleep, conscious attention, fatigue


Thalamus
Thalamus

  • Oval mass of gray matter in center of ________________

  • Receives nearly all sensory information on its way to cerebral cortex

    • integrate & directs information to appropriate areas

  • Interconnected to limbic system so involved in emotional & memory functions


Hypothalamus
Hypothalamus

  • Walls & floor of 3rd ventricle

  • Functions

    • hormone secretion & pituitary

    • autonomic NS control

    • thermoregulation

    • food & water intake

    • sleep & circadian rhythms

    • memory (mammillary bodies)

    • emotional behavior


Epithalamus pineal gland
Epithalamus (Pineal Gland)

No output

In fish, amphibians, and reptiles monitors day and season length

Endocrine function in mammals, secreting melatonin

Seasonal sexual cycles

Humans - circadian


Cerebrum gross anatomy
Cerebrum -- Gross Anatomy

  • Cerebral cortex is 3mm layer of gray matter with extensive folds to increase surface area ---- divided into lobes


Functions of cerebrum lobes
Functions of Cerebrum Lobes

  • Frontal contains voluntary motor functions and areas for planning, mood, smell and social judgement

  • Parietal contains areas for sensory reception & integration of sensory information

  • Occipital is visual center of brain

  • Temporal contains areas for hearing, smell, learning, memory, emotional behavior


Association areas
Association Areas

Association areas interpret information

  • Somesthetic association area

    • limb position, location of touch or pain, and shape, weight & texture of an object

  • Visual association area

    • identify the things we see

  • Auditory association area

    • remember the name of music or identify a person by voice

  • Motor association area



Basal nuclei
Basal Nuclei

  • Masses of gray matter deep to cerebral cortex

  • Receive input from substantia nigra & motor cortex & send signals back to these regions

  • Involved in motor control & inhibition of tremors


Limbic system
LimbicSystem

  • Loop of cortical structures surrounding deep brain

    • amygdala, hippocampus, fornix & cingulate gyrus

  • Amydala important in ________________ and ____________________________ in memory


Somesthetic sensation
Somesthetic Sensation

Somatosensory area is postcentral gyrus


Sensory homunculus
Sensory Homunculus

  • Demonstrates that the area of the cortex dedicated to the sensations of various body parts is proportional to how sensitive that part of the body is.

Ditto for Motor Homunculus


Motor control
Motor Control

  • Intention to contract a muscle begins in motor association (premotor) area of frontal lobes

  • Precentral gyrus (primary motor area) processes that order by sending signals to the spinal cord

    • upper motor neurons

    • to contralateral muscles

  • Motor homunculus is proportional to number of muscle motor units in a region


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