Malnutrition
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Malnutrition. PREPARED BY: P. SANTHI, SA, BIO., SCI., ZPHS, SRIKALAHASTI CHITTOOR DIST, AP INDIA. 10 TH CLASS BIO. SCIENCE, ENGLISH MEDIUM. Eating food that does not have one or more than one nutrients in required amounts is known as malnutrition. Causes of Malnutrition.

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Malnutrition

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Malnutrition


PREPARED BY:P. SANTHI,SA, BIO., SCI.,ZPHS, SRIKALAHASTICHITTOOR DIST, APINDIA


10 TH CLASSBIO. SCIENCE,ENGLISH MEDIUM


  • Eating food that does not have one or more than one nutrients in required amounts is known as malnutrition.


Causes of Malnutrition


  • 1. Willful starvation or low food intake - when the person decides not to eat or to eat insufficient amounts of food.


Starvation


Low Food Intake


Low Food Intake


Insufficient Amounts Of Food


Insufficient Amounts Of Food


  • 2. Poor health of the individual – due to infections, repeated attacks of diarrhoea and round worm infections.


Diarrhoea


Diarrhoea


Diarrhoea


Spread of Diarrhoea


Diarrhoea - Bacteria


Round Worm


Round Worm


Round Worm


Round Worm


Round Worm in the eye


Round Worm in the leg


Round Worm in the body


Round Worm


Round Worm


Round Worm


  • 3. Lack of awareness of nutritional qualities of food, nutritional requirements, irrational and wrong beliefs about food and wrong feeding habits.


  • 4. Socio- Economic factors such as poverty, different amounts and types of foods given to different members in the same family.


  • 5. Poor quality of housing, sanitation and water supply also contributes to illhealth.


Poor quality of housing


Poor quality of housing


sanitation


Poor quality of water supply


Poor quality of water supply


  • 1. Willful starvation or low food intake - when the person decides not to eat or to eat insufficient amounts of food.

  • 2. Poor health of the individual – due to infections, repeated attacks of diarrhoea and round worm infections.

  • 3. Lack of awareness of nutritional qualities of food, nutritional requirements, irrational and wrong beliefs about food and wrong feeding habits.

  • 4. Socio- Economic factors such as poverty, different amounts and types of foods given to different members in the same family.

  • 5. Poor quality of housing, sanitation and water supply also contributes to illhealth.


  • Types of Malnutrition in children:-


  • Malnutrition in children is of 3 types.

  • 1. Calorie Malnutrition.

  • 2. Protein Malnutrition

  • 3. Protene – Calorie Malnutrition


CALORIE MALNUTRITION

This is seen in children who are given insufficient amounts of energy providing nutrients such as Carbohydrates and fats. This is also called ‘Energy Malnutrition’.


Calorie Malnutrition


PROTEIN MALNUTRITION

  • This is seen in children who are given incufficient amounts of Protein in their diet are fed on Proteins that have lesser amounts of essential Amino acids.


PROTEIN MALNUTRITION


PROTENE – CALORIE MALNUTRITION

  • This is seen in children who are given poor quality food in which energy giving substances and proteins are less.


PROTENE – CALORIE MALNUTRITION


KWASHIORKOR


  • Kwashiorkor is an African word.

  • Kwashiorkor means displaced children that is mother stops giving milk to the child and the child is given alternative food before one year.


  • This is a disease due to protein deficiency in the diet. Growth slowed down in these children.


  • Body parts become swollen due to accumulation of water in the intercellur spaces.


  • Muscles are very poorly developed and the legs are usually swollen.


  • Face will be fluffy and moon shaped.


  • Due to reduction of appetite in the child, he finds it difficult to eat the food.


  • Child frequently suffers from diarrhoea.


Diarrhoea


  • Hair becomes thin and does not have normal shine.


  • The skin becomes dry and loose.


  • The child becomes inactive shows little interest in playing and learning.


  • Kwashiorkor is an African word.

  • Kwashiorkor means displaced children that is mother stops giving milk to the child and the child is given alternative food before one year.

  • This is a disease due to protein deficiency in the diet. Growth slowed down in these children.

  • Body parts become swollen due to accumulation of water in the intercellur spaces.

  • Muscles are very poorly developed and the legs are usually swollen.

  • Face will be fluffy and moon shaped.

  • Due to reduction of appetite in the child, he finds it difficult to eat the food.

  • Child frequently suffers from diarrhoea.

  • Hair becomes thin and does not have normal shine.

  • The skin becomes dry and loose.

  • The child becomes inactive shows little interest in playing and learning.


MARASMUS


  • This is a disease due to the dificiency of both proteins and calories.


Proteins


calories


calories


  • This disease occurs due to improper diet of low carbohydrates and proteins which is given to the child before one year of the age.


  • Due to protein dificiency body growth will be reduced. As a result child looks smaller for his age.


  • Body weight will be less than 60% of the expected weight for the age.


  • The muscles are less developed and there is no fat under the skin. Abdomen gives a swollen look.


  • Defence mechanism is not well developed hence child suffers from infections and diarrhoea.


  • The child shows little interest in physical and mental activities.


  • The child is highly irritable and has voracious appetite.


  • MARASMUS:

  • This is a disease due to the dificiency of both proteins and calories.

  • This disease occurs due to improper diet of low carbohydrates and proteins which is given to the child before one year of the age.

  • Due to protein dificiency body growth will be reduced. As a result child looks smaller for his age.

  • Body weight will be less than 60% of the expected weight for the age.

  • Limbs will be thin and ribs are prominent.

  • The muscles are less developed and there is no fat under the skin. Abdomen gives a swollen look.

  • Defence mechanism is not well developed hence child suffers from infections and diarrhoea.

  • The child shows little interest in physical and mental activities.

  • The child is highly irritable and has voracious appetite.


OBESITY


  • 1. Obesity is a disease due to over eating and excess of energy intake.


  • 2. Obesity is seen both in children and adults.


  • 3. A person is said to be Obese when more than 20% of the body weight is due to fat.


  • 4. Due to over eating excess of energy is converted into fat and is stored in the cells of adipose tissue located below the skin.


  • 5. Obesity leads to diabetes, cardiovascular, renal and gall bladder problems.


  • 6. Obesity can be reduced by increasing the energy expenditure and by reducing the intake of energy rich foods like fats.


  • 7. It is advised to take low calorie diet.


  • 8. Recent studies indicates that Obesity is due to genetic defects and is inheritable.


STEPS TO BE TAKEN BY OBESE PEOPLE TO REDUCE THEIR WEIGHT AND SIZE


  • 1. The only way to treat Obesity is to spend more energy and reduce the intake of energy.


Reduce The Intake Of Energy


spend more energy


  • 2. They are advised to take more balanced and fibre rich food.


fibre rich food


fibre rich food


  • 3. As a person reduced weight the amount of fat in the adipocytes reduces, lessening their size.


  • 4. Exercises must be done under proper supervision otherwise it leads to cardiovascular problems.


Exercises must be done


  • 5. Weight reduction must be gradual and should not be sudden.


  • 6. Proper and required weight is to be maintained through proper diet and regular exercises.


  • 1. The only way to treat Obesity is to spend more energy and reduce the intake of energy.

  • 2. They are advised to take more balanced and fibre rich food.

  • 3. As a person reduced weight the amount of fat in the adipocytes reduces, lessening their size.

  • 4. Exercises must be done under proper supervision otherwise it leads to cardiovascular problems.

  • 5. Weight reduction must be gradual and should not be sudden.

  • 6. Proper and required weight is to be maintained through proper diet and regular exercises.


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