Fig. 1 Surface weather chart at 9 JST 21 July 1999
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Fig. 1 Surface weather chart at 9 JST 21 July 1999. Observation. NARITA. 20mm/h- 10-20mm/h 1-10mm/h 1mm/h. HANEDA. 9JST 12JST 15JST 18JST 21JST.

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Fig. 1 Surface weather chart at 9 JST 21 July 1999 .

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Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

Fig. 1 Surface weather chart at 9 JST 21 July 1999.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

Observation

NARITA

20mm/h-10-20mm/h1-10mm/h1mm/h

HANEDA

9JST 12JST 15JST 18JST 21JST

Fig. 2 Hourly precipitation observed by operational radars of Japan Meteorological Agency from 9 JST to 21 JST on 21 July 1999. Precipitation was calibrated by the rain gages. Circles in the panel of 15 JST indicate the observation range of Narita and Haneda Doppler radars.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

Fig. 3 Horizontal distribution of precipitation region (shaded region), surface temperature (solid line) and horizontal wind at 16 JST 21 July 1999. Barb and flag indicate the wind velocity of 2 m/s and 5 m/s, respectively.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

Benchmark Case

10mm/h

5mm/h

1mm/h

9JST 12JST 15JST 18JST 21JST

10m/s

Fig. 4 Precipitation region and horizontal wind at the height of 1.5km predicted from 9 JST 21 July 1999.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

GEONET sitesDoppler radar sites

NARITA

HANEDA

Fig.5 GEONET sites used to analyze PWV and SWV in the Kanto area (black squares). Two open circles indicate the positions of Doppler radar. Solid contour lines depict the topography with the interval of 500m.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

GPS satellite

Height

GPS receiver

Fig. 6 Schematic illustration of the calculation of SWV from the predicted density and specific humidity.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

31.6

31.6

NARITA

HANEDA

15.2

15.2

10.8

10.8

Layer

7.7

7.7

Height (km)

Height (km)

4.9

4.9

Layer

2.7

2.7

1.1

1.1

0.3

0.3

Number of data

Observed RW - first guess

Observed RW - first guess

(m/s)

(m/s)

Fig. 7 Distribution of the difference between the observed RW and the first guess.Vertical axes are the number and height of layers of MSM.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

Number of data

Observed vertical-scaled SWV - first guess value (mm)

Fig. 8 Difference between the observed vertical-scaled SWV and the corresponding first guess value. Vertical axis indicates the number of data in each difference.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

15.210.8 7.7 4.9 2.7 1.1 0.3

Layer

Height (km)

(m/s)

Observation error of RW (m/s)

Fig. 9 The observation error profile of the horizontal wind observed by the Satellite. Vertical axes indicate the number and height of layers of MSM.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

RW&PWV

Conventional data

PWV

Total

Total

Total

1

1

1

2

2

2

RW

1

PWV

2

PWV

RW

RW&SWV

SWV

Total

Total

1

Total

1

2

2

2

1

RW

RW

2

SWV

2

SWV

Fig. 10 Variation of the cost function. Horizontal axes are the times of the iteration. Numbers in each panel indicated the times of analysis cycle.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

RW EL=1.1 °

RW EL=1.1°

PWV

PWV

-

-

-

-

+

(a) Observation

-

(d) RW

+

+

-

-

+

+

-

-

+

+

(b) First guess

-

(e) PWV

-

-

+

-

-

+

-

-

-

(c) Conventionaldata

-

+

+

+

-

(f) RW & PWV

+

-

-

+

+

-

-

Fig. 11 Radial wind at the elevation angle of 1.1 degree and precipitable water vapor at 15JST. Arrows and broken lines in RW fields indicate the horizontal wind inferred from RW data and the positions of RW=0. Squares with border of solid lines in PWV fields indicate PWV that are smaller than 58mm. From upper left to lower right panels are (a) observed fields, (b) first guess fields, (c) analyzed fields of 4d-Var DA of the conventional data (radiosonde etc), (d) analyzed fields of 4d-Var DA with RW added, (e) analyzed fields of 4d-Var DA with PWV added, and (f) analyzed fields of 4d-Var DA with RW and PWV added.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

(c) Observation

  • (b) Conventional data

(a) Benchmark

60mm/h-40-60mm/h20-40mm/h10-20mm/h1-10mm/h1mm/h

16JST

FT=01

16JST

mm/h

mm/h

mm/h

mm/h

5m/s

5m/s

60mm/h-40-60mm/h20-40mm/h10-20mm/h1-10mm/h1mm/h

17JST

17JST

FT=02

Fig. 12 Prediction of hourly precipitation and horizontal wind at 0.5 km from 15 JST, July 21, 1999. Upper row is 1 hour forecast (Valid time 16 JST) and lower row is 2 hour forecast (Valid time 17JST). From left to right columns are (a) the benchmark case, (b) prediction from 4d-Var DA of the conventional data, and (c) the hourly precipitation observed by JMA operational radars. Contour lines and shaded regions indicate hourly precipitation. Arrows in (a) and (b) are horizontal wind at 0.5 km. Large open arrows and the closed dotted ellipses indicate the major flows and the convergence zones.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

(c) RW

(b) SWV

(a) PWV

SWV

FT=01

FT=01

FT=01

5mm/h

5mm/h

1mm/h

1mm/h

FT=02

FT=02

FT=02

5m/s

5m/s

Fig. 13 Same as Fig.12b, except for (a) prediction from 4d-Var DA with PWV added, (b) prediction from 4d-Var DA with SWV added, (c) prediction from 4d-Var DA with RW added.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

(a) RW&PWV

(b) RW&SWV

FT=01

FT=01

5mm/h

1mm/h

FT=02

FT=02

5m/s

Fig. 14 Same as Fig. 12b but for (a) prediction from 4d-Var DA with RW and PWV added, (b) prediction from 4d-Var DA with RW and SWV added.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

5mm/h

1mm/h

5m/s

FT=05

FT=03

FT=06

Observation

60mm/h-40-60mm/h20-40mm/h10-20mm/h1-10mm/h1mm/h

18JST

19JST

20JST

21JST

RW&PWV

FT=04

Fig. 15 Prediction of hourly precipitation and horizontal wind at 0.5 km from 18 JST to 21 JST on 21 July 1999. Upper rows are the hourly precipitation observed by JMA radars. Lower rows are the predicted hourly precipitation from 3 hour forecast to 6 hour forecast (Valid time from 18 JST to 21 JST). Contour lines and shaded regions indicate hourly precipitation. Arrows are horizontal wind at 0.5 km. Large open arrows show major flows.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

(b) Conventional data

(b) Conventional data

(c) RW

(c) RW

(c) -(b)

(a) First guess

(a) First guess

B

B

2019

2019

1817

1817

1615

1615

1413

1413

12

12

(d)-(b)(e)-(b)(e)-(c)

[g/kg]

[g/kg]

10m/s

10m/s

A

A

1.50

1.25

1.00

1.50

1.25

1.00

0.75

0.50

0.25

0.75

0.50

0.25

Fig. 16 (a) Specific humidity and horizontal wind of first guess at the height of 0.5km. A line A-B is the position of the cross sections cross in Fig. 17. (b)-(e) are the differences of specific humidity and horizontal wind of the experiments of 'Conventional data', 'RW', 'PWV' and 'RW&PWV' from the first guess. Panels between (b)-(e) are the difference between both sides experiments.

-0.25

-0.50

-0.75

-0.25

-0.50

-0.75

-1.00

-1.25

-1.50

[g/kg]

-1.00

-1.25

-1.50

[g/kg]

(d) PWV (e)-(d)

(e) RW&PWV

(e) RW&PWV

4m/s

4m/s


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

(d) RW&SWV-RW&PWV

(c) RW&SWV

(b) RW&PWV

(a) First guess

18.0

16.5

15.0

1.50

1.25

1.00

500550600

500550600

500550600

500550600

+

0.75

0.50

0.25

13.5

12.0

10.5

+

+

+

+

650700

650700

650700

650700

Height (hPa)

Height (hPa)

Height (hPa)

Height (hPa)

9.0

7.5

6.0

-0.25

-0.50

-0.75

750800850

750800850

750800850

750800850

-1.00

-1.25

-1.50

[g/kg]

4.5

3.0

1.50

[g/kg]

+

+

+

900950

900950

900950

900950

A

B

A

+

B

A

B

+

A

B

10m/s

4m/s

Fig. 17 (a) Vertical cross section of specific humidity and horizontal wind of first guess along the line A-B in Fig. 16. (b) and (c) are the difference of specific humidity and horizontal wind of the experiments of ‘RW&PWV’ and ‘RW&SWV’ from the first guess. (d) is the difference between ‘RW&SWV’ and ‘RW&PWV’. Vertical axes in (a)-(d) are the pressure from 1000 hPa to 500 hPa.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

(a) RW10&PWV

(b) RW35&PWV

FT=01

FT=01

FT=01

FT=01

5mm/h

1mm/h

FT=02

FT=02

FT=02

FT=02

5m/s

(c) HANEDA

(d)NARITA

Fig. 18 Same as Fig.12b, except for the prediction from 4d-Var DA with RW and PWV data added. Range of input RW data are (a) from surface to 1.0 km observed by Haneda and Narita radars, (b) from surface to 3.5km observed by Haneda and Narita radars, (c) from surface to 6.5 km observed by Haneda radar and (d) from surface to 6.5 km observed by Narita radar, respectively.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

Table.1 Experiment design of the data assimilation


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

Radar_AMeDAS

NARITA

20mm/h-10-20mm/h1-10mm/h1mm/h

HANEDA

9JST 12JST 15JST 18JST 21JST

Fig. 2 Hourly precipitation observed by operational radars of JMA from 9JST to 21JST on 21 July 1999. Precipitation was calibrated by the rain gages. Circles in the panel of 15JST indicate the observation range of Narita and Haneda Doppler radars.

Radar_AMeDAS

NARITA

10mm/h-1-10mm/h1mm/h

HANEDA

9JST 12JST 15JST 18JST 21JST

Fig. 2 Hourly precipitation observed by operational radars of JMA from 9JST to 21JST on 21 July 1999. Precipitation was calibrated by the rain gages. Circles in the panel of 15JST indicate the observation range of Narita and Haneda Doppler radars.


Fig 1 surface weather chart at 9 jst 21 july 1999

(d) RW&SWV-RW&PWV

(c) RW&SWV

(b) RW&PWV

(a) First guess

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

A

B

+

B

A

B

+

A

B

10m/s

4m/s

Fig. 17 (a) Vertical cross section of specific humidity and horizontal wind of first guess along the line A-B in Fig16. (b) and (c) are the difference of specific humidity and horizontal wind of the experiments of ‘RW&PWV’ and ‘RW&SWV’ from the first guess. (d) is the difference between ‘RW&SWV’ and ‘RW&PWV’. Vertical axes in (a)-(d) are the pressure from 1000hPa to 500hPa.


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