Assessing and addressing risks from potentially polluting shipwrecks key developments since wow i
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Assessing and Addressing Risks from Potentially-Polluting Shipwrecks: Key Developments since WOW I. Dagmar Schmidt Etkin, PhD Environmental Research Consulting. Wrecks of the World (WOW) II: Evaluating and Addressing Potential Underwater Threats

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Assessing and addressing risks from potentially polluting shipwrecks key developments since wow i

Assessing and Addressing Risks from Potentially-Polluting Shipwrecks:Key Developments since WOW I

Dagmar Schmidt Etkin, PhD

Environmental Research Consulting

Wrecks of the World (WOW) II:

Evaluating and Addressing Potential Underwater Threats

Maritime Institute of Technology and Graduate Studies (MITAGS) Linthicum, Maryland

6 – 7 June 2011


Potentially polluting wrecks international issue

Potentially Polluting Wrecks = International Issue

World of Wrecks - Hidden Risks of the Deep

Monde des épaves - risques cachés du profound

Welt der Wracke - versteckte Risiken vom Tiefen

Κόσμος των συντριμμιών - κρυμμένοι κίνδυνοι βαθιού

擊毀-暗藏的風險世界的深

Wereld van Wrakken - Verborgen Risico's van Diep

Mondo dei naufragi - rischi nascosti del profondo

大破-深いのの隠された危険の世界

난파 - 깊은 것의 숨겨지은 위험의 세계

Mundo das destruições - riscos escondidos do profundo

Мир развалин - спрятанных рисков глубокого

Mundo de las ruinas - riesgos ocultados del profundo

העולם של - מוסתר ינוכיס העמוקה של

दुनिया की है - दीप के छुपे हुए जोखिम

Thế giới của Wrecks - Rủi ro trong các sâu

Wraki - Ukryte Zagrożenia z

โลกของ- ซ่อนความเสี่ยงของลึก

Mundo ng - Nakatagong panganib ng

 Romuajoneuvoista - Piilotettu riskejä

Свет олупине - Скривени ризици од Дееп

Världen av vrak - Dolda Risk

Dünya virane - ve Gizli Riskler


Dagmar schmidt etkin phd environmental research consulting

Worldwide, over 8,500 wrecks of large vessels* containing total of 1.5 to 15 million tonnesof oil and hazardous materials (2005 IOSC Study)

ERC Wreck Databases

*tank vessels or other ships of least 400 GRT


Geographic distribution of wrecks

Geographic Distribution of Wrecks

Note: Exxon Valdez = 37,400 tonnes

About 1,360 in US Waters

ERC Wreck Databases


Types of vessels by age

Types of Vessels by Age

ERC Wreck Databases


Types of vessels by age1

Types of Vessels by Age

75% of the wrecks are World War II era – warships or sunk by warships

ERC Wreck Databases


Varying conditions of wrecks

Varying Conditions of Wrecks

  • Leaking chronically (e.g., USS Arizona – 2 gallons per day)

  • Leaking episodically (e.g., SS Jacob Luckenbach “mystery” spills)

  • Potential to release oil in larger amounts after disturbance

  • Reported relatively intact

  • Condition unknown

USS Mississinewa


Environmental and socioeconomic resources at risk

Environmental and Socioeconomic Resources at Risk


2005 international oil spill conference

2005 International Oil Spill Conference

  • Too many wrecks = too overwhelming

  • Too many legal issues

  • Too many financial issues

  • No guidance on how to deal with wrecks

  • No systematic approach to assessment


Wrecks of the world conference september 2009

Wrecks of the World ConferenceSeptember 2009

  • Discussions of pro-active strategies

  • Introductions of risk assessment strategies


Growing acceptance for pro active strategy towards shipwrecks

Growing Acceptance for Pro-Active Strategy Towards Shipwrecks

• Reactive Strategy - Deal with continuous leaking or sudden release oiling events and damages as they occur – greater costs for spill response and damages, risk remains

OR

• Pro-active Strategy - Take proactive approach to remove oil from wrecks with greatest risk – highest potential for leakage or spillage and highest damages – lower costs, risk removed


Proactive removal of oil and hazardous materials from risky wrecks will

Proactive removal of oil and hazardous materials from risky wrecks will:

  • Avert significant damages to natural and socioeconomic resources

  • Reduce costs for response and monitoring of spills and leakage


Challenges with pro active strategy

Challenges with Pro-Active Strategy

  • Large number of wrecks

  • Considerable expense for remediation

  • Limited funding available for remediation

  • Financial/legal responsibility often at issue

  • Risk to personnel in removal operations

  • Potential for leakage during removal operations

  • Unnecessary for many wrecks (unlikely to leak or little oil left on board)


Risk assessment approach

Risk Assessment Approach

Assess shipwrecks with regard to risk


Risk probability x consequences

Risk = Probability x Consequences


Risk probability x consequences1

Risk = Probabilityx Consequences

Probability of Leakage


Risk probability x consequences2

Risk = Probability x Consequences

Consequences (Impact from Leakage)


Risk probability x consequences3

Risk = Probability x Consequences

Probability of Leakage

Consequences (Impacts from Leakage)


Risk assessment projects

Risk Assessment Projects

  • Scandinavian (Swedish Maritime Administration et al.)

  • France and Italy DEEPP project (CEDRE)

  • Canada (Transport Canada)

  • South Pacific (UNEP PREP et al.)

  • UK (Maritime and Coastguard Agency)

  • Norway (Kystverket)

  • US “Wreck Oil Removal Project” (NOAA/USCG)


Scandinavian risk assessment

Scandinavian Risk Assessment

  • Beginning development of database of wrecks

  • Analysis of legal situation of wrecks

  • Case study: SS Skytteren (sank 1942)


Deep project france italy

DEEP Project (France & Italy)

  • Unique international cooperation

  • Process:

    • Library research

    • Sea bottom exploration

    • ROV investigation

    • Wreck identification (to Database)

    • Risk Analysis

    • Decision


Transport canada

Transport Canada

  • 1,000s of wrecks charted on Canada east coast

  • Aerial surveillance (mystery spills)

  • Work with CCG, industry, provinces, fishing community to establish contingency plans

  • Case Study: Dredge Shovelmaster – decision to leave in place, monitor


South pacific

South Pacific

  • Extensive mapping and identification of wrecks (particularly WWII-related)

  • Development of comprehensive database


Uk potentially polluting wreck risk assessment

UK Potentially Polluting WreckRisk Assessment

Pollution risk (oil, chemical)

Safety risk (unexploded ordnance)


Us wreck oil removal project

US “Wreck Oil Removal Project”


Other developments

Other Developments

  • Technological developments and breakthroughs

  • Field experience with removal projects

  • Legal developments

  • Financial considerations


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