Using
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 48

Using the Torrance Incubation Model (TIM) to enhance instruction and support creative problem solving An Introduction PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 363 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Using the Torrance Incubation Model (TIM) to enhance instruction and support creative problem solving An Introduction. 3 rd Annual Watson School of Education AIG Mini-conference March 30, 2011 Edward Caropreso, PhD. Synopsis: .

Download Presentation

Using the Torrance Incubation Model (TIM) to enhance instruction and support creative problem solving An Introduction

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Using the Torrance Incubation Model (TIM) to enhance instruction and support creative problem solvingAn Introduction

3rd Annual

Watson School of Education AIG Mini-conference

March 30, 2011

Edward Caropreso, PhD


Synopsis:

  • NC Standards explicitly identify creativity, critical thinking and problem solving as instructional outcomes.

  • The Torrance Incubation model (TIM) has been grounded in the theory, research and practice of creative problem solving.

  • Designed as a framework for teachers to create lesson plans that would develop students’ creative thinking skills while covering content.

  • TIM can address any content at virtually any developmental level.

  • Based on the understanding that learning is a process, not an event, and that learning should be designed with more than the classroom in mind.

  • Effective instruction using TIM will prepare learners to respond flexibly and reflectively to the increasingly complex and rapidly evolving world of the 21st Century!


What is the TIM; how does it work?

  • Major purpose

    • Design & delivery of “creativity content”

    • Provides a model for integrating “creativity content” into other disciplines & content areas

  • TIM can be used separately or in combination with other approaches


What is the TIM; how does it work?

  • Requires understanding the distinction between the creative process of the model & “creativity content” being delivered

  • Using TIM requires training & developing knowledge, understanding of creativity skills


What is the TIM; how does it work?

  • Three aspects of model use:

    • TIM features, contents, processes

    • Creativity content: Skills, behaviors, processes

    • Content domain integrated with TIM & creativity content.


Creativity is not:

The domain of a few individuals

  • Not known to be linked to specific factors or traits

  • Exclusive of many individuals

    • Shared by all, varies by many factors

  • Exclusively “world-altering”

    • Personal vs Cultural creativity

      • Importance of distinguishing between these 2

      • Need to develop Personal to achieve Cultural


  • Creativity is:

    • Universal

      • All people have this capacity, as with intelligence

    • Continuous

      • Varies by degree, type, as with intelligence

    • In Potential (subject to “training”)

      • Identifiable via types of “performances”

      • Performance competencies can be developed


    2-Factor Model

    • Novelty: Unique, distinct, “original” responses to environment, experience, circumstances

    • Usefulness: Serves a purpose; responds to perceived need; solves identified problem/s


    4 Factor Model

    • Fluency:

      • Frequency of response; actual total number of responses to a stimulus

    • Flexibility:

      • Frequency of categories of responses; actual total number of types of responses

    • Originality:

      • Statistical infrequency of response for a given individual in a given group at a given time

    • Elaboration:

      • Development of responses

      • Completion of ideas

      • Integration across ideas

      • “Marketing” ideas/alternatives


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:Getting Beyond the Aha!E. P. Torrance & H. T. Safter (1990)


    TIM: Getting Beyond the Aha!What is the “aha”?

    • Moments of “insight”“intuition”“revelation”

    • Moments of “wholeness” or “oneness”

      • “uniting with everything”

    • Supra-rational view of creativity

      • vs exclusively rational interpretation

    • Non-linear sequence/-ing of creative events


    The Incubation Model:Information Processing Strategies for Creative Teaching & Learning

    • 3 Basic Stages

    • Each stage: Set of Cognitive Strategies

    • Basic premise:

      • Must be deliberate activities before, during, & after instruction


    The Incubation Model:Information Processing Strategies for Creative Teaching & Learning

    • Deliberate use of specific strategies

      • Forms a basic delivery system for creativity skills that fully operationalizes how & which skill/s can be deliberately taught, regardless of discipline or content/context of instruction

    • Metacognitive aspect of TIM

      • Powerful practice of complex thinking & problem solving


    The Incubation Model:Information Processing Strategies for Creative Teaching & Learning

    • Stage 1: Heightening Anticipation

    • Stage 2: Deepening Expectations

    • Stage 3: Keeping it Going

    • Each stage: Designed to promote a particular learning & incubation “function”


    The Incubation Model:Information Processing Strategies for Creative Teaching & Learning


    The Incubation Model:Information Processing Strategies for Creative Teaching & Learning


    The Incubation Model:Information Processing Strategies for Creative Teaching & Learning

    • Depicted as 3-D model

    • In practice: Recursive, “spiral” movement

    • Key to Effectiveness: Flexibility

    • Encourages Discovery: Learners & Teachers


    Torrance Incubation Model:Information Processing Model that

    • Deals with cognitive inputs, outputs

    • Is interactive, in theory, structure, application

      • Must willingly, actively engage thinking, doing

    • Is iterative, recursive rather than linear

    • Considers the relationship among person, process, product, environment

    • Considers teaching, learning as interactive

      • In theory, practice promotes both

    • Combines rational & supra-rational thinking skills

      • Intuition plus logic

    • Is metacognitive, requires processing content+process

      • Both learner & teacher

    • Is metaphorical


    The Incubation Model:Creative Teaching & Learning

    • Stage 1: Heightening Anticipation (see p.9)

      • Strategies designed to guide teacher to motivate & engage learners creatively

        • Create desire to know

        • Heighten anticipation/expectation

        • Get attention

        • Arouse curiosity

        • Tickle imagination

        • Give purpose/meaning

    • Purpose: Engage learners & connect deliberate psychological readiness to pertinent content


    The Incubation Model:Creative Teaching & Learning

    • Stage 2: Deepening Expectations (see p.10)

      • Digging deeper

      • Looking twice

      • Listening for smells

      • Crossing out mistakes

      • Cutting holes so see through

      • Cutting corners

      • Getting in deep water

      • Getting out of locked doors

  • Purpose:Sustain, use motivation to encourage deeper exploration;

    • Requires alternating between anticipatory & participatory strategies


  • The Incubation Model:Creative Teaching & Learning

    • Stage 2: Deepening Expectations (see p.10)

      • Strategies to be implemented in combinations, using any/all as needed

      • Result in behaviors & thinking beyond basics, requiring complex levels of thought & PS

      • Sometimes/often resulting “discomfort” requiring “tolerance for ambiguity” by all


    The Incubation Model: Stage 2

    • Digging deeper: Beyond the surface; diagnose difficulties; integrate available information; elaborate, diverge

    • Looking twice: Defer judgment; keep open; search for information; evaluate-reevaluate information

    • Listening for smells: sense of congruence; use, integrate information from multiple sensory experiences

    • Crossing out mistakes: Make guesses, check, correct, modify, reexamine, discard, refine, improve


    The Incubation Model: Stage 2

    • Cutting holes so see through: Summarize; simply; direct, focus attention on relevant, promising, specific information

    • Cutting corners: Avoid, discard irrelevant information; make mental leaps; make decisions

    • Getting in deep water: Search for unanswered questions; taboo topics; confront the unimaginable; being overwhelmed by complexity; being deeply absorbed in surrounding events

    • Getting out of locked doors: Solve the unsolvable; open new vistas; go beyond “more & better” of the same solutions


    The Incubation Model:Creative Teaching & Learning

    • Stage 3: Keeping it Going (see pp.11-12)

      • Having a ball

      • Singing in one’s own key

      • Building sand castles

      • Plugging in the sun

      • Shaking hands with tomorrow

    • Purpose: Application & transfer of learning

      • Continues process of participation, alternating with anticipation related to connections & uses of learning

      • Learner focus on activities intense enough to sustain engagement after “formal lesson” has concluded


    The Incubation Model: Stage 3

    • Having a ball: use humor, laughter, fantasy; attend to having fun uses of the mind

    • Singing in one’s own key: personalize information; relate personal experience to information; see implications of information for current or future problems, etc

    • Building sand castles: use information as the basis for imagining, fantasizing, searching for ideal approaches; going beyond the known, familiar

    • Plugging in the sun: engage in hard work, follow up on information; find & explore resources

    • Shaking hands with tomorrow: relate to own future; enlarge, enrich, make more accurate images of the future; search for alternative solutions to future problems


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:3 Additional Issues

    • Problem-finding

      • Pervasive impediment: Assuming the problem is known, therefore, focus on finding the solution

    • Producing Alternatives

      • At all levels of problem-solving, increased fluency supports the processes; the more alternatives, the greater the probability of creative solution/s

    • Originality: Acceptance of being “different”

      • Adequate time

      • Play with ambiguity/uncertainty

      • Heightened awareness of importance

      • Make legitimate


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • The Problem

      • Recognition, awareness of a situation

      • Defining the problem

      • Commitment to addressing the problem

      • Recognizing the essence of the difficulty

      • Identifying sub-problems (to manage, solve)


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Produce, Consider Many Alternatives

      • Fluency

      • Amount

      • Generating many, varied ideas


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Be Flexible

      • Creating variety in content

      • Producing different categories

      • Changing “set” to do differently

      • Perceive from alternative perspectives


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Be Original

      • Break from the obvious

      • Beyond habitual thought, action

      • Seek, encourage statistically infrequent responses

      • Recognized, support the ability to create novel, unusual perspectives


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Highlighting the essence

      • Retaining sense of importance

      • Discriminate relevant from irrelevant information

      • Staying focused on essential, relevant

      • Refining, synthesizing ideas


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Elaboration-But Not Excessively

      • Add details, ideas

      • Develop a plan

      • Implement, “sell” the solution


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Keep Open

      • Resistance to premature closure

      • Resist “tension” to complete tasks in easiest, fastest way/s

      • Practice with ideas in variety of circumstances w/o time constraints

      • Need for & use of time


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Emotional Awareness

      • Acknowledge role/significance of affective experience

      • Recognizing verbal verbal & non-verbal cues

      • Responding, trusting, using feelings to understand people, situations

      • Personal insight/s

      • Adds to, not replaces, rational-cognitive experience/s


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Putting Ideas into Context

      • Meaningful synthesis of ideas & experiences

      • Creating “bigger” framework for experience

      • Personalize, make experience individual

      • Abstract analysis/synthesis:

        • Part-part relationships

        • Part-whole relationships

        • Generalizations across concepts


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Combine & Synthesize

      • Combine types & modes of information, acquisition, processing & retrieval

      • Combing relatively unrelated elements


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Visualize Richly & Colorfully

      • Alternative perceptions

      • Using vivid, exciting imagery

      • Creating colorful, engaging images that appeal to all 5 senses


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Enjoy, Use Fantasy

      • Future possibilities

      • Varying point-of-view

      • Feeling comfortable with the “unknown”

      • Unconstrained by “reality

      • Imagine, play, consider what does not yet exist


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Make It Swing, Make it Ring

      • Responding to movement & sound

      • Kinesthetic & auditory experiences: Natural modalities for children (& experienced adults)

      • Experience via multiple modalities deepens concept learning


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Look at it Another Way: Unusual Visual Perspectives

      • “See” from different visual & psychological perspectives

      • Ability to “see in different ways” heightens experiences of innovation & inventiveness


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Visualize the Inside

      • Paying attention to the internal dynamic workings of objects, events, individuals, experiences, etc

      • “Seeing the insides” can lead to new, deeper insights

      • Seeing “multiple perspectives”


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Extending, breaking through Boundaries

      • Confronting the “what’s given” limitation/bias

      • Changing the paradigm or system within which a problem resides

      • Recognizing that new possibilities always exist

      • Acknowledging the potential for & ambiguity of the “incomplete” idea, object, etc, & continuing problem-solving work


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Using & Enjoying Humor

      • Integrates or synthesizes physiological, psychological & social processes

      • Accepting/understanding perceptual, conceptual incongruities

      • Recognizing & responding to unusual, unexpected combinations, surprises, discrepancies


    The Incubation Model of Teaching:18 Creative Skills

    • Glimpses of Infinity

      • Wonder, dream about possibilities

      • View events as open-ended

      • Positive focus on the future

      • Actively engaging one’s self as part of perceived future for ideas to transcend the present

      • Developing anticipation for multi-possibility future

      • Create opportunities for open-ended environments


    TIM: Creativity Skills/Contents

    • Beyond the “big 4” factors: 14 additional Skills

      • Highlighting the essence

      • Elaborate but not excessively

      • Keeping open (resist premature closure)

      • Emotional awareness

      • Putting ideas into context

      • Combining & synthesizing

      • Visualize richly, colorfully

      • Using fantasy

      • Using movement & sound

      • Unusual visual perspective/s

      • Internal visualizations

      • Extending/breaking through boundaries

      • Using humor

      • Getting glimpses of infinity


    The Incubation Model:How to Create Creative Teaching & Learning

    • When integrating creativity into content

      • 2 Types of Objectives

        • Content topic knowledge & skills

        • Creativity knowledge & skills

    • Select only 1-2 creativity skills to teach

      • Focused practice

    • Begin by reworking existing, familiar lessons

      • Concentrate on incorporating creativity skills


    The Incubation Model:How to Create Creative Teaching & Learning

    • After selecting the content

      • Select a creativity skill that either

        • Compliments or Contrasts the Content

    • Manage your attitude, expectations

      • Keep open to possibility

      • Build, design & implement

      • Accept “mistakes”- “cross them out” & revise

    • Be deliberate identifying expectations, outcomes

      • Share with students so they know what’s expected

    • Deliberately incorporate 3 elements & both domains of objectives (content & creativity)

    • Evaluate, revise, modify as needed


    The Incubation Model:How to Create Creative Teaching & Learning

    • Two Lessons

      • Creativity Skill: Look at it Another Way

      • Social Studies: Constitutional Rights


  • Login