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ENGINEERING OPTIMIZATION Methods and Applications. A. Ravindran, K. M. Ragsdell, G. V. Reklaitis. Book Review. Chapter 4: Linear Programming. Part 1: Abu (Sayeem) Reaz Part 2: Rui (Richard) Wang. Review Session June 25, 2010. Finding the optimum of any given world – how cool is that?!.

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ENGINEERING OPTIMIZATION Methods and Applications

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ENGINEERING OPTIMIZATION

Methods and Applications

A. Ravindran, K. M. Ragsdell, G. V. Reklaitis

Book Review


Chapter 4: Linear Programming

Part 1: Abu (Sayeem) Reaz

Part 2: Rui (Richard) Wang

Review Session

June 25, 2010


Finding the optimum of any given world

– how cool is that?!


Outline of Part 1

  • Formulations

  • Graphical Solutions

  • Standard Form

  • Computer Solutions

  • Sensitivity Analysis

  • Applications

  • Duality Theory


Outline of Part 1

  • Formulations

  • Graphical Solutions

  • Standard Form

  • Computer Solutions

  • Sensitivity Analysis

  • Applications

  • Duality Theory


What is an LP?

  • An LP has

  • An objective to find the best value for a system

  • A set of design variables that represents the system

  • A list of requirements that draws constraints the design variables

The constraints of the system can be expressed as linear equations or inequalities and the objective function is a linear function of the design variables


Types

Linear Program (LP): all variables are real

Integer Linear Program (ILP): all variables are integer

Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP): variables are a mix of integer and real number

Binary Linear Program (BLP): all variables are binary


Formulation

  • Formulation is the construction of LP models of real problems:

    • To identify the design/decision variables

    • Express the constraints of the problem as linear equations or inequalities

    • Write the objective function to be maximized or minimized as a linear function


The Wisdom of Linear Programming

“Model building is not a science; it is primarily an art that is developed mainly by experience”


Example 4.1

  • Two grades of inspectors for a quality control inspection

    • At least 1800 pieces to be inspected per 8-hr day

    • Grade 1 inspectors:

      25 inspections/hour, accuracy = 98%, wage=$4/hour

    • Grade 2 inspectors:

      15 inspections/hour, accuracy= 95%, wage=$3/hour

    • Penalty=$2/error

    • Position for 8 “Grade 1” and 10 “Grade 2” inspectors

Let’s get experienced!!


Final Formulation for Example 4.1


Example 4.2


Nonlinearity

“During each period, up to 50,000 MWh of electricity can be sold at $20.00/MWh, and excess power above 50,000 MWh can only be sold for $14.00/MW”

Piecewise  Linear in the regions (0, 50000) and (50000, ∞)


Let’s Formulate


Final Formulation for Example 4.2


Outline of Part 1

  • Formulations

  • Graphical Solutions

  • Standard Form

  • Computer Solutions

  • Sensitivity Analysis

  • Applications

  • Duality Theory


Definitions

  • Feasible Solution: all possible values of decision variables that satisfy the constraints

  • Feasible Region: the set of all feasible solutions

  • Optimal Solution: The best feasible solution

  • Optimal Value: The value of the objective function corresponding to an optimal solution


Graphical Solution: Example 4.3

  • A straight line if the value of Z is fixed a priori

  • Changing the value of Z  another straight line parallel to itself

  • Search optimal solution  value of Z such that the line passes though one or more points in the feasible region


Graphical Solution: Example 4.4

  • All points on line BC are optimal solutions


Realizations

  • Unique Optimal Solution: only one optimal value (Example 4.1)

  • Alternative/Multiple Optimal Solution: more than one feasible solution (Example 4.2)

  • Unbounded Optimum: it is possible to find better feasible solutions improving the objective values continuously (e.g., Example 2 without )

Property: If there exists an optimum solution to a linear programming problem, then at least one of the corner points of the feasible region will always qualify to be an optimal solution!


Outline of Part 1

  • Formulations

  • Graphical Solutions

  • Standard Form

  • Computer Solutions

  • Sensitivity Analysis

  • Applications

  • Duality Theory


Standard Form (Equation Form)


Standard Form (Matrix Form)

(A is the coefficient matrix, x is the decision vector, b is

the requirement vector, and c is the profit (cost) vector)


Handling Inequalities

Slack

Using Equalities

Surplus

Using Bounds


Unrestricted Variables

In some situations, it may become necessary to introduce a variable that can assume both positive and negative values!


Conversion: Example 4.5


Conversion: Example 4.5


Recap


Outline of Part 1

  • Formulations

  • Graphical Solutions

  • Standard Form

  • Computer Solutions

  • Sensitivity Analysis

  • Applications

  • Duality Theory


Computer Codes

  • For small/simple LPs:

    • Microsoft Excel

  • For High-End LP:

    • OSL from IBM

    • ILOG CPLEX

    • OB1 in XMP Software

  • Modeling Language:

    • GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System)

    • AMPL (A Mathematical Programming Language)

  • Internet

    • http: / /www.ece.northwestern.edu/otc


Outline of Part 1

  • Formulations

  • Graphical Solutions

  • Standard Form

  • Computer Solutions

  • Sensitivity Analysis

  • Applications

  • Duality Theory


Sensitivity Analysis

  • Variation in the values of the data coefficients changes the LP problem, which may in turn affect the optimal solution.

  • The study of how the optimal solution will change with changes in the input (data) coefficients is known as sensitivity analysis or post-optimality analysis.

  • Why?

    • Some parameters may be controllable  better optimal value

    • Data coefficients from statistical estimation  identify the one that effects the objective value most  obtain better estimates


Example 4.9

100 hr of labor, 600 lb of material, and 300hr of administration per day


Solution

A. Felt, ‘‘LINDO: API: Software Review,’’ OR/MS Today, vol. 29, pp. 58–60, Dec. 2002.


Outline of Part 1

  • Formulations

  • Graphical Solutions

  • Standard Form

  • Computer Solutions

  • Sensitivity Analysis

  • Applications

  • Duality Theory


Applications of LP

For any optimization problem in linear form with feasible solution time!


Outline of Part 1

  • Formulations

  • Graphical Solutions

  • Standard Form

  • Computer Solutions

  • Sensitivity Analysis

  • Applications

  • Duality Theory (Additional Topic)


Duality of LP

Every linear programming problem has an associated linear program called its dual such that a solution to the original linear program also gives a solution to its dual

Solve one, get one free!!


Reversed

Constraint constants

Objective coefficients

Columns into constraints and constraints into columns

Find a Dual: Example 4.10


Find a Dual: Example 4.10


Some Tricks

  • • “Binarization”

  • If

  • • OR

  • • AND

  • • Finding Range

  • • Finding the value of a variable

http://networks.cs.ucdavis.edu/ppt/group_meeting_22may2009.pdf


Binarization

  • x is positive real, z is binary, M is a large number

  • For a single variable

  • • For a set of variable


If

  • Both x and y are binary

  • If two variables share the same value

  • • If y = 0, then x = 0

  • • If y = 1, then x = 1

  • If they may have different values

  • • If y = 1, then x = 1

  • • Otherwise x can take either 1 or 0


OR

  • A, x, y, and z are binary

  • • M is a large number

  • • If any of x,y,z are 1 then A is 1

  • • If all of x,y,z are 0 then A is 0


AND

  • x, y, and z are binary

  • • If any of x,y are 0 then z is 0

  • • If all of x,y are 1 then z is 1


Range

  • x and y are integers, z is binary

  • We want to find out if x falls within a range defined by y

  • • If x >= y, z is true

  • • If x <= y, z is true


Finding a Value

  • A,B,C are binary

  • • If x = y, Cy is true

x takes the value of y if both the ranges are true


Thank You!

Now Part 2 begins….


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