URBAN TRANSPORTATION AND THE USE OF BICYCLES IN LOS ANGELES CITY. JUDITH RAMOS VALENCIA GUILLERMO IBARRA. Los Angeles Urban form and Travel behavior.
URBAN TRANSPORTATION AND THE USE OF BICYCLES IN LOS ANGELES CITY
JUDITH RAMOS VALENCIA
The history of the urban form of Los Angeles is tied to its transportation patterns, which was developed during the most important transportation revolutions:
1.- The first major transportation revolution was the Electric Streetcar Era (1890-1920)
2.- The second major transportation revolution was during the Freeway Era (1945-present).
Of all those issues we center our attention in the automobiles fuel use and the consequences that it brings to the earth and to humans.
Source: Table elaborated in base of table 3 from Giuliano and Dargay, 2006: pg 113
Automobiles are some of the major generators of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and by consequences of air pollution. If we make a comparison between Los Angeles city and other metropolitan areas in United States (See table 1.1) we have that the most number of unhealthy days regarding to more number of pollutants in the air, is in Los Angeles.
Source: Table elaborated in base of table 2 from Crane, 2004: pg 7
Table 1.2 Transportation Energy Use per Capita in Global cities
Source: Table elaborated in base of table 3.2 from Newman and Kenworthy, 1999: pg 217
3) The bicycle at the present time: NGO´S, Bike programs