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The Music of Machines. a machine means regular rhythm metronome (Beethoven) spinning wheel (Wagner - Flying Dutchman) sewing machine (Charpentier - Louise) trains (Honegger - Pacific 231) airplane (Antheil - Airplane Sonata) mechanical devices (Antheil - Ballet Mecanique)

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the music of machines
The Music of Machines
  • a machine means regular rhythm
    • metronome (Beethoven)
    • spinning wheel (Wagner - Flying Dutchman)
    • sewing machine (Charpentier - Louise)
    • trains (Honegger - Pacific 231)
    • airplane (Antheil - Airplane Sonata)
    • mechanical devices (Antheil - Ballet Mecanique)
    • telephone (Menotti - The Telephone)
    • foundry (Mossolov - Steel Foundry)
facination with the machine
Facination with the Machine
  • Arthur Honegger 1892 - 1955
  • Pacific 231
    • composed in 1923
    • a “symphonic movement”
    • description of a steam locomotive
facination with the machine3
Facination with the Machine
  • Heitor Villa-Lobos 1887 - 1959
  • Bachianas Brasileiras
    • suites for various instrumental combinations
    • No. 2: The Little Train of the Caipira
    • inspired by a trip he took
    • “Caipira” means “yokel”
technology and the listener
Technology and the listener
  • MUSIQUE CONCRETE
    • “natural” sounds
    • editing
  • ELECTRONIC STUDIOS
    • Herbert Eimert - 1952
  • Edgard Varese 1883 - 1965
  • Poeme Electronic (1958)
    • Le Corbusier
    • Philips Radio Corporation - Brussels World’s Fair
    • sound - projected images
    • no synchronization
technology
TECHNOLOGY
  • Synthesizers
    • the impact of synthesizers
      • affordable
      • efficient
    • RCA Mark II (1955)
    • Robert Moog and Donald Buchla
  • Switched - on - Bach (1968)
    • Walter (later Wendy) Carlos
  • Live and Electronic Mixes
  • Live Electronic Music
  • Computer Music
technology6
TECHNOLOGY
  • IRCAM
    • Institut de Recherche et de Coordination Acoustique / Musique (IRCAM)
    • founded 1976 - Paris
    • Pierre Boulez
    • funded by the French government
  • IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE 20th CENTURY
    • phonograph
      • preserve
      • influenced the complexity
      • brought music to everyone
technology7
TECHNOLOGY
    • radio
      • 1920
      • ideal music library - recorded and live
  • electronic music has the effect of blurring the distinction between musical sound and noise
  • tape recorder
    • greatest impact on compositional technique
    • passive or active
philip glass b 1937
Philip Glass b. 1937
  • Degrees from the University of Chicago, the Juilliard School, and studies with Boulanger
  • Withdrew the first 20 compositions after working with Ravi Shankar
  • His works since the mid 1960s are influenced by the rhythmic organization of Indian music
    • Einstein on the Beach - 1976
    • Satyagraha - 1980
    • Akhnaten - 1984
    • The Voyage - 1992
  • Koyaanisqatsi
questions
QUESTIONS
  • Yehudi Menuhin plays the
  • violin
  • John Cage performed his famous piece 4’33” in the video on a street corner. What is the point of this work?
  • careful listening to the sounds around us
  • Pacific 231 is a musical description of
  • a steam locomotive
  • Villa-Lobos also composed a descriptive work about a train. It is called
  • The Little Train of the Caipira
questions10
QUESTIONS
  • Alban Berg and Anton Webern were disciples of
  • Schoenberg
  • The Hungarian composer who combined native folk music with European music was
  • Bartok
  • The first major figure in American Art Music was
  • Charles Ives
  • Who invented the prepared piano?
  • John Cage
red hot questions
RED-HOTQUESTIONS
  • Who is the composer of Poeme Electronique?
  • Edgard Varese
  • For what occasion was Poeme Electronique composed?
  • The 1958 Brussels World Fair
  • Musique Concrete means
  • naturally produced sounds altered electronically
  • The first electronic studio was developed by the German
  • Herbert Eimert
cool questions
COOL QUESTIONS
  • The first synthesizer was the
  • RCA Mark II
  • IRCAM is located
  • in underground Paris
  • Pierre Boulez is the director of IRCAM and was conductor of
  • the New York Philharmonic Orchestra
  • The greatest technological impact on 20th century composition was the
  • tape recorder
questions13
QUESTIONS
  • International composer who admonished Americans to draw on their own background
  • Dvorak
  • First person to research the music of the Native Americans
  • Theodore Baker
  • Creator of the Wa-Wan press
  • Arthur Farwell
  • Father of Black American classical music
  • William Grant Still
questions14
QUESTIONS
  • Composer of thousands of works including classical and jazz
  • Duke Ellington
  • Composer of two ballets based on Western folklore
  • Aaron Copland
  • First American student of Boulanger
  • Aaron Copland
  • Composer of the “African-American Symphony”
  • William Grant Still
the bridge between16
The Bridge Between
  • Building bridges
    • Copland
    • Gershwin
    • Ellington
    • Bernstein
george gershwin 1898 1937
George Gershwin 1898 - 1937
  • Gershwin composed four works that cross the cultural divide
    • Rhapsody in Blue - 1924
    • Piano Concerto in F - 1925
    • An American in Paris - 1928
    • Porgy and Bess - 1935
porgy and bess
Porgy and Bess
  • Opera in the 20th century
  • Gershwin lived on a small island in South Carolina and worked with Charleston writer DuBose Heyward
leonard bernstein 1918 1990
Leonard Bernstein 1918 - 1990
  • Bernstein represented American Music in the last half of the 20th century
  • Bernstein was a pianist, composer, teacher, and conductor
  • Protégé of Serge Koussevitsky at Tanglewood
  • As a pianist, he played everything
leonard bernstein
Leonard Bernstein
  • As a conductor, he was permanent conductor of the New York Philharmonic
  • As a composer he composed ballets, musicals, symphonies, operas
  • West Side Story - 1957
setting the stage for the 21st century

Setting the Stage for the 21st Century

Total Serialism, New Sounds, Freedom, Chance, Postmodernism, Fusion

after ww ii
After WW II
  • The Audience
    • Technology
    • The struggle between popularization and classical
  • The end of the war marked a turning point
    • A period of conflicting tendencies:
      • Extreme control
      • Complete freedom
total serialism
Total Serialism
  • Composers felt Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern had not gone far enough
  • Serialism means the notes are arranged in a series
  • The first composition based on total serialism was Structures I by Pierre Boulez
structures i
Structures I
  • Boulez was trained in math and music
  • Structures I was written for two pianos
  • Boulez made series for four different musical elements
    • Pitch
    • Duration
    • Attack (the way a pianist strikes the note)
    • dynamics
structures i25
Structures I
  • Demands skilled performers and a lot of effort by the listeners
  • sounds like a random, disjointed piano piece but is actually a carefully constructed work
  • You hear the shifting textures and contrasting panels of sound
other composers of this style
Other Composers of this Style
  • Karlheinz Stockhausen 1928 -
  • Luciano Berio 1925 -
  • Milton Babbitt 1916 -
a late development
A Late Development
  • Electronic Music Technology
    • Development of the synthesizer in the 1950s
    • All aspects of music could be controlled
    • The performance no longer needed a human
new sounds freedom and chance
New Sounds, Freedom, and Chance
  • Popular composers began to overwhelm the music of serious composers
  • The most interesting experiments were happening in serious music
new sounds
New Sounds
  • Many experiments revolved around new technology provided by
    • Synthesizer
    • Tape recorder
    • Computer
    • New techniques on traditional instruments
new sounds30
New Sounds
  • Two composers working with sound textures
    • Gyorgy Ligeti 1923 -
    • Krzysztof Penderecki 1933 -
  • Ligeti worked with large blocks of sound
    • The blocks can expand or contract
threnody for the victims of hiroshima
Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima
  • Penderecki’s most famous composition
  • 1960
  • For string orchestra
freedom and chance
Freedom and Chance
  • Total serialism and block sounds require very careful control
  • Freedom and Chance are a move away from control
  • The idea was John Cage’s
  • Cage studied with Schoenberg who told him he had no ear for music!
  • Cage said “Everything we do is music”
john cage 1912 1992
John Cage 1912 - 1992
  • Prepared piano
  • The toss of dice
  • Works include
    • Imaginary Landscape No. 4 1951
      • 12 radios
    • 4’33”
      • Performer does nothing
  • “If my work is accepted, I must move on to the point where it isn’t”
postmodernism
Postmodernism
  • The meaning of art was no longer certain
    • Is paint dropped on the floor “art”?
    • Is subway graffiti “art”?
  • Concert organizations are presenting the music of the past
  • Are orchestras simply museums?
  • The economy forced cuts in support for the arts
postmodernism35
Postmodernism
  • A deliberate return to the past
  • A return to tonality
    • Neo-tonality
    • Neo-Romanticism
  • Quoting earlier styles and cross-fertilization
  • The rapid spread of recorded music
    • Do all moments in history exist with equal weight?
postmodernism36
Postmodernism
  • The dividing line between opera and musicals is narrowing
  • Performing groups deliberately mix genres
  • String quartets play Jimi Hendrix
  • Chamber groups use amplified instruments
postmodern music
Postmodern Music
  • It began by quoting earlier music
    • Nach Bach - George Rochberg
      • fragments of Bach’s harpsichord music
    • Renaissance Concerto - Lukas Foss, 1986
      • Based on the music of Orfeo’s lament from Monteverdo’s Orfeo
renaissance concerto
Renaissance Concerto
  • Recitative - after Monteverdi
    • Many repeated pitches
    • The opening phrase is a direct quote
other features of postmodern music
Other Features of Postmodern Music
  • Return to tonality
    • David del Tredici 1937-
  • Multimedia Postmodern
    • Laurie Anderson 1947-1999
  • Incorporation of musical elements from other cultures
    • Alan Hovhaness 1911-
other features of postmodernism
Other Features ofPostmodernism
  • Merging of popular and “Serious” music
    • Minimalism
      • Philip Glass 1937-
      • John Adams 1947-
fusion
Fusion
  • The most important aspect of Postmodern Music is the narrowing of gaps between all types of music
  • A mix of jazz and rock is called fusion
    • Miles Davis
    • Keith Jarrett
    • William Bolcom
    • Bobby McFerrin
fusion42
Fusion
  • The theater
    • Les Miserables
    • Phantom of the Opera
      • Both works contain the style of the Broadway Musical and the continuous musical settings of the opera
inclusion
Inclusion
  • Women and minorities are taking their place in American music making
    • Sound Patterns by Pauline Oliveros 1932-
    • Sometimes by Olly Wilson 1937-
    • Wings by Joan Tower 1938-
    • Symphony No. 1 by Ellen Taaffe Zwilich 1939-
the performers
The Performers
  • The traditional barriers between classical and popular music are disappearing
    • The Kronos Quartet
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