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Stress and Psychology. … in contrast, but complementary to what we know about stress from a physiological perspective. Changing the normative focus of psychology (i.e., prevention vs. intervention) :. Validate the following: a person can ask for help when needed

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Stress and psychology l.jpg

Stress and Psychology

… in contrast, but complementary to what we know about stress from a physiological perspective


Changing the normative focus of psychology i e prevention vs intervention l.jpg
Changing the normative focus of psychology (i.e., prevention vs. intervention) :

  • Validate the following:

    • a person can ask for help when needed

    • a helper can initiate an offer to help

  • Teach methods of coping (e.g., to establish self esteem)

  • Create ritualistic relationships (e.g., Young Life, Marriage Encounter, Weight Watchers, etc.)

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


Learning to cope with stress l.jpg
Learning to cope with stress... vs. intervention) :

Stimulus

Response

“operant conditioning”

Potential

Behaviors

Function of:

arousal

expectation

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


This paradigm is referred to as social learning albert bandura l.jpg

Arousal: how engaged we become with the stimuli we encounter (mental / emotional)

Expectations:

previous successes related to the behavior (self efficacy)

positive / negative reinforcement (including feedback from others)

encouragement to model specific behaviors

This paradigm is referred to as “Social Learning” (Albert Bandura)

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


An additional thought related to expectations l.jpg
An additional thought related to expectations... (mental / emotional)

Ideal

Real

Self

Social

Self

Self

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


Tendency l.jpg
Tendency... (mental / emotional)

to do what “feels” best at the

moment (intuitive / RB) and

in ways that worked before

(analytical / LB)

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


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Behavior Modification (mental / emotional)

One needs to replace a negative response (real or perceived) by rewarding a better response; otherwise, there is a decreased likelihood that change will occur.

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


Other theories add to our basic understanding of human behavior l.jpg
Other theories add to our basic understanding of human behavior:

  • Sigmund Freud

  • Carl Jung

  • Elisabeth Kubler-Ross

  • Viktor Frankl

  • Wayne Dyer

  • Leo Buscaglia

  • Abraham Maslow

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


Sigmund freud l.jpg
Sigmund Freud behavior:

  • humans maintain a level of (instinctual) tension that arises from both internal sources (instinctual impulses) and external sources which attack our ego or identity

  • the ego copes with stress through the use of a host of defense mechanisms: denial, repression, projection, rationalization, displacement, and humor

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


Carl jung l.jpg
Carl Jung behavior:

  • human personality depends on a process of self-discovery and realization (individuation)

  • individuation can reduce psychic tension by building a bridge of understanding between the conscious and unconscious minds

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


Elisabeth kubler ross l.jpg
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross behavior:

  • stress can be aroused through the death of unmet expectations

  • arousal leads to stages of denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance

  • resolution of emotional baggage leads to the final stage (i.e., acceptance) and inner peace

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


Viktor frankl l.jpg
Viktor Frankl behavior:

  • complete life experience includes pain and suffering

  • searching for the meaning of the suffering will help to resolve issues of emotional stress

  • focusing on something positive helps to facilitate that search (logotherapy)

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


Wayne dyer l.jpg
Wayne Dyer behavior:

  • guilt and worry are associated with virtually every stressor (erroneous zones)

  • guilt is a manifestation of self-anger

  • worry is a manifestation of fear

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


Abraham maslow l.jpg
Abraham Maslow behavior:

  • personality traits are a reflection of inner resources that help people cope with stress and achieve psychological health

  • “self-actualization” suggests that humans operate on a hierarchy of needs which ultimately influence our behaviors

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


Hierarchy of needs l.jpg

5. Self-actualization behavior:

4. Needs for self-esteem

2. Safety needs

3. Belongingness and love

1. Physiological needs

Hierarchy of Needs

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


Leo buscaglia l.jpg
Leo Buscaglia behavior:

  • self love is not innate, but rather a response to a learned group of stimuli and behaviors

  • self love leads to and grows from the process of self-discovery and acceptance

  • Video: “The Politics of Love”

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


Emergency psychological first aid l.jpg
Emergency Psychological First Aid: behavior:

When coping with a crisis:

1. Stay optimistic in the face of the crisis.

2. Evaluate honestly your strengths and weaknesses.

3. Keep faith in yourself, your thoughts and your actions.

4. Do something as an attempt to initiate change.

5. Take one step at a time.

6. Enlist help whenever possible.

HSS 4543 - Stress Management


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