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Stress and Psychology. … in contrast, but complementary to what we know about stress from a physiological perspective. Changing the normative focus of psychology (i.e., prevention vs. intervention) :. Validate the following: a person can ask for help when needed

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stress and psychology

Stress and Psychology

… in contrast, but complementary to what we know about stress from a physiological perspective

changing the normative focus of psychology i e prevention vs intervention
Changing the normative focus of psychology (i.e., prevention vs. intervention) :
  • Validate the following:
    • a person can ask for help when needed
    • a helper can initiate an offer to help
  • Teach methods of coping (e.g., to establish self esteem)
  • Create ritualistic relationships (e.g., Young Life, Marriage Encounter, Weight Watchers, etc.)

HSS 4543 - Stress Management

learning to cope with stress
Learning to cope with stress...

Stimulus

Response

“operant conditioning”

Potential

Behaviors

Function of:

arousal

expectation

HSS 4543 - Stress Management

this paradigm is referred to as social learning albert bandura
Arousal: how engaged we become with the stimuli we encounter (mental / emotional)

Expectations:

previous successes related to the behavior (self efficacy)

positive / negative reinforcement (including feedback from others)

encouragement to model specific behaviors

This paradigm is referred to as “Social Learning” (Albert Bandura)

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an additional thought related to expectations
An additional thought related to expectations...

Ideal

Real

Self

Social

Self

Self

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tendency
Tendency...

to do what “feels” best at the

moment (intuitive / RB) and

in ways that worked before

(analytical / LB)

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behavior modification
Behavior Modification

One needs to replace a negative response (real or perceived) by rewarding a better response; otherwise, there is a decreased likelihood that change will occur.

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other theories add to our basic understanding of human behavior
Other theories add to our basic understanding of human behavior:
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Carl Jung
  • Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
  • Viktor Frankl
  • Wayne Dyer
  • Leo Buscaglia
  • Abraham Maslow

HSS 4543 - Stress Management

sigmund freud
Sigmund Freud
  • humans maintain a level of (instinctual) tension that arises from both internal sources (instinctual impulses) and external sources which attack our ego or identity
  • the ego copes with stress through the use of a host of defense mechanisms: denial, repression, projection, rationalization, displacement, and humor

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carl jung
Carl Jung
  • human personality depends on a process of self-discovery and realization (individuation)
  • individuation can reduce psychic tension by building a bridge of understanding between the conscious and unconscious minds

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elisabeth kubler ross
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
  • stress can be aroused through the death of unmet expectations
  • arousal leads to stages of denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance
  • resolution of emotional baggage leads to the final stage (i.e., acceptance) and inner peace

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viktor frankl
Viktor Frankl
  • complete life experience includes pain and suffering
  • searching for the meaning of the suffering will help to resolve issues of emotional stress
  • focusing on something positive helps to facilitate that search (logotherapy)

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wayne dyer
Wayne Dyer
  • guilt and worry are associated with virtually every stressor (erroneous zones)
  • guilt is a manifestation of self-anger
  • worry is a manifestation of fear

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abraham maslow
Abraham Maslow
  • personality traits are a reflection of inner resources that help people cope with stress and achieve psychological health
  • “self-actualization” suggests that humans operate on a hierarchy of needs which ultimately influence our behaviors

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hierarchy of needs

5. Self-actualization

4. Needs for self-esteem

2. Safety needs

3. Belongingness and love

1. Physiological needs

Hierarchy of Needs

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leo buscaglia
Leo Buscaglia
  • self love is not innate, but rather a response to a learned group of stimuli and behaviors
  • self love leads to and grows from the process of self-discovery and acceptance
  • Video: “The Politics of Love”

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emergency psychological first aid
Emergency Psychological First Aid:

When coping with a crisis:

1. Stay optimistic in the face of the crisis.

2. Evaluate honestly your strengths and weaknesses.

3. Keep faith in yourself, your thoughts and your actions.

4. Do something as an attempt to initiate change.

5. Take one step at a time.

6. Enlist help whenever possible.

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