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SOUTH EAST ASIA. Mainland and Insular Regions. GENERALIZATIONS. Consists of mainland and insular regions Has been shatter belt between powerful adversaries Fractured cultural and political geography High relief, volcanic activity , earthquakes, tropical climates

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SOUTH EAST ASIA

Mainland and Insular Regions


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GENERALIZATIONS

  • Consists of mainland and insular regions

  • Has been shatter belt between powerful adversaries

  • Fractured cultural and political geography

  • High relief, volcanic activity , earthquakes, tropical climates

  • Legacies of foreign influences still felt

  • Insular SE Asia population growing faster than mainland

  • Mekong river starts in China and flows through 5 countries sustaining farmers, fishing and boat owners

  • Indonesia, most populous country but has not reached potential


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POPULATION GEOGRAPHY

  • Of SE Asia’s 546 million people, over half (303 million or 55%) live on islands of Indonesia and Philippines; leaves mainland with only 45% of total population

  • Limited immigration because of physical geography

  • Ethnically similar but cultural differences have emerged through time

  • Hindu, Islam, Buddhism and Christianity all present

  • Real division between rural/urban society

  • Minorities in each country from surrounding countries


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EVOLUTION OF POLITICAL MAP

  • Dutch, French, British and Spanish (then America after Spanish-American War) major European colonizers

  • Created zones to control but problem came after independence

  • France becomes Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos

  • Britain develops into Burma (now Myanmar) and Malaysia

  • America develops Philippines

  • Dutch developed Indonesia

  • Outcome very similar to what happened in Africa


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POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY

  • Boundaries: contracts between states

  • 4 types of boundaries and all found in SE Asia

    • Antecedent: defined and delineated before present-day human landscape; Malaysia and Indonesia

    • Subsequent: result of long process of adjustment and modification; China and Vietnam

    • Superimposed: drawn forcibly across unified cultural landscape; Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    • Relict: border that has ceased to function but imprint still evident in culture; North and South Vietnam


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POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY, cont.

  • Territorial Morphology: individual countries shape that affects is condition and survival

  • 5 types and 4 found in SE Asia

    • Compact: somewhere between round and rectangular, without major indentations; Cambodia

    • Protruded: substantial, usually compact territory from which extends a peninsular corridor that may be landlocked of coastal; Thailand, Myanmar

    • Elongated: length is at least six times the average width, lies astride environmental or cultural transitions, Vietnam

    • Fragmented: two or more territorial unites separated by foreign territory or by water, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines

    • Perforated: completely surround territory of other states; South Africa and Lesotho


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MAINLAND SE ASIA

  • Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar (Burma)

  • Vietnam

    • Vietnam War; 1954-1974; based on Domino Theory

    • Most today don’t remember War, 60% or population under 21 years of age

    • Currently united under Communist North

    • Recently seen foreign investment, privatization of industry especially in Saigon (South Vietnam) and some saw North and South growing apart again

  • Cambodia

    • French colony, primarily Hindu

    • 1975 overthrown by Khmer Rouge who destroyed economy and country

    • Vietnam invaded in 1970’s after Khmer Rouge creating major refugees into Thailand

    • 1998 Pol Pot committed suicide and many hoping Cambodia will turn around, but it is dependent on political stability which seems hard to find


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MAINLAND SE ASIA, cont.

  • Laos

    • Interior and isolated, Surrounded by 5 nations who all stronger

    • 5.5 million people, no railroads, few paved roads, only 17% urban

  • Thailand

    • 63.1 million people, constitutional monarchy and attempts to move more towards democracy thwarted

    • During 1990’s Thailand grew rapidly, but in 1997 currency fell and became first casualty in economic probs of late 1990s

    • Buddhism primary religion and tourism leading source of revenue

    • AIDS infects 1 million of 60 million population

  • Myanmar

    • When British left, ruled by military dictatorship destroyed political and economic stability

    • Today one of poorest nations in world, leading exporter in Opium Trade, high unemployment, limited industrial growth

    • Recent anti-government/pro-democracy protests have lead to violence, Buddhist monk protests and international condemnation


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INSULAR SE ASIA

  • Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor, Philippines

  • Malaysia

    • 24.2 million people, predominantly Muslim

    • Economic growth occurring but existence of many minorities creating cultural problems

  • Singapore

    • 1965 seceded from Malaysia and became ministate

    • 4.1 million people, 240 square miles

    • Modern, wealthy, one of worlds largest high tech producers

    • As long as world considers Singapore safe and not corrupt will continue to expand and grow


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INSULAR SE ASIA, cont.

  • Indonesia

    • Largest archipelago in world; 17,000 islands and 219 million people

    • Controls 5 major islands, some of whom want independence

    • Economic stability kept dictator in power, but affected by economic downturn that hit Pacific Rim, late 1990’s

  • East Timor

    • Formerly part of Indonesia but in 1999 voted for Independence and currently working for it

  • Philippines

    • Primarily Christian with some Islamic influence

    • Mix of Mongoloid, Malay, Arab, Chinese, Japanese, Spanish and American created unique Pilipino culture

    • During 1990’s economic growth occurred despite volcano eruption, Islamic insurgents and territory dispute

    • If keeps economically stable, this lower-middle-income country will improve and become powerful in emerging Pacific Rim


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