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Signal Processors. Devices that change some characteristic of a sound. Analog Processors. ANALOG PROCESSORS DIRECTLY MODIFY SIGNALS AS THEY ENTER THE DEVICE . Digital Processors.

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Signal processors l.jpg

Signal Processors

Devices that change some characteristic of a sound.


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Analog Processors

  • ANALOG PROCESSORS DIRECTLY MODIFY SIGNALS AS THEY ENTER THE DEVICE


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Digital Processors

  • DIGITAL PROCESSORS (DSPs) CONVERT THE INCOMING SIGNAL INTO BINARY LANGUAGE AND ARE THEN PROCESSED BY MATHEMATICALLY RECALCULATING THE DIGITAL CODE ACCORDING TO A ALGORITHM


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4 Basic Categories of Processors

  • SPECTRUM PROCESSORS

  • TIME PROCESSORS

  • AMPLITUDE PROCESSORS

  • NOISE PROCESSORS


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SPECTRUM PROCESSORS

  • AFFECT THE SPECTRAL BALANCE (FREQUENCY/AMPLITUDE RESPONSE PATTERN )

  • CHANGE TIMBRE

  • EXAMPLES: Equalizers and Filters


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TIME PROCESSORS

  • AFFECT THE TIME BETWEEN A SIGNAL AND ITS REPETITIONS

  • CHANGE ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENT

  • EXAMPLES: Reverbs and Delays


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AMPLITUDE PROCESSORS

  • AFFECT THE DYNAMIC RANGE

  • CHANGE THE ACOUSTIC ENVELOPE

  • EXAMPLES: Compressors, Limiters, and Noise Gates


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NOISE PROCESSORS

  • REDUCE ANALOG TAPE HISS

  • EXAMPLES: Dolby and dBx


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EQUALIZATION (EQ)

  • PROCESS OF ALTERING THE FREQUENCY/AMPLITUDE RESPONSE PATTERN BY BOOSTING OR ATTENUATING SELECTED FREQUENCIES

  • THE MOST COMMON FORM OF SIGNAL PROCESSING

  • EQUALIZERS ENABLE US TO EXERCISE TONAL OR TIMBRAL CONTROL OVER A SOUND


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EQ USED FOR:

  • TO OVERCOME RECORDING DEFICIENCIES IN THE ROOM ACOUSTICS, MICROPHONE, OR INSTRUMENT

  • TO ALTER A SOUND FOR CREATIVE REASONS

  • TO AFFECT A BETTER BLEND BETWEEN COMPETING INSTRUMENTS


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BELL CURVE EQ

  • THE EFFECT OF EQ TO FREQUENCIES ADJACENT TO A TARGET FREQUENCY, ALSO CALLED A PEAKING CURVE EQ.

BANDWIDTH: THE RANGE OF FREQUENCIES AFFECTED BY EQ ON EACH SIDE OF THE CENTER FREQUENCY


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QUALITY FACTOR (Q)

  • REFERS TO THE WIDTH OF THE AFFECTED BAND

  • HIGH Q VALUE = NARROW BANDWIDTH

  • LOW Q = WIDE BANDWIDTH


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SHELVING EQ

  • SIMILAR TO BELL CURVE EQ EXCEPT THAT THE CURVE GENTLY FLATTENS OUT INTO A STRAIGHT LINE


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EQUALIZERS

  • FIXED FREQUENCY (OR SELECTABLE FREQUENCY) HAS A SET NUMBER OF FREQUENCIES THAT CAN BE MODIFIED AND HAS A SET BANDWIDTH

  • PARAMETRIC HAS A "SWEEP-ABLE" OR CONTINUOUS FREQUENCY SELECT AND A BANDWIDTH THAT IS VARIABLE

  • GRAPHIC EQUALIZER IS A FIXED FREQUENCY EQUALIZER WITH FADER CONTROLS FOR EASY VISUAL INSPECTION


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FILTERS

  • DIFFER FROM EQUALIZERS IN TWO BASIC WAYS

    1. THEY ONLY ATTENUATE (CUT)

    2. THEIR EFFECT IS MUCH MORE DRASTIC


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HIGH PASS FILTER

  • HIGH PASS FILTERS ATTENUATE ALL FREQUENCIES BELOW A GIVEN FREQUENCY


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LOW PASS FILTER

  • LOW PASS FILTERS ATTENUATE ALL FREQUENCIES ABOVE A GIVEN FREQUENCY


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BAND PASS FILTER

  • BAND PASS FILTERS ATTENUATE ALL FREQUENCIES ABOVE AND BELOW TWO GIVEN FREQUENCIES


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NOTCH FILTER

  • NOTCH FILTERS ATTENUATE A VERY NARROW BANDWIDTH BETWEEN TWO FREQUENCIES


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REVERBERATION

  • SUCCESSIVELY REPEATING DELAYS CREATING CLOSELY SPACED ECHOES IS CALLED REVERBERATION OR REVERB

  • REVERB UNIT: A DEVICE THAT ARTIFICIALLY REPRODUCES THE SOUND CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENTS


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REVERB UNITS

  • ACOUSTIC ECHO CHAMBER

  • SPRING REVERB

  • PLATE REVERB

  • DIGITAL REVERB


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REVERB TERMS

  • DELAY: THE TIME BETWEEN REFLECTIONS OF SOUND

  • PRE-DELAY: THE TIME BETWEEN THE ORIGINAL SOUND AND ITS FIRST REPETITION

  • REVERB DECAY TIME: TIME IT TAKES SOUND TO DECREASE 60 dB


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DELAY UNITS

  • ANALOG DELAY USES PHYSICAL MEANS TO HOLD BACK A SIGNAL

  • DIGITAL DELAY SIMPLY CONVERTS SIGNAL (A/D CONVERTER), APPLIES A REVERB ALGORITHM AND THEN CONVERTS BACK TO ANALOG (D/A CONVERTER)


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COMPRESSORS

  • AN AMPLIFIER WHOSE OUTPUT HAS A SMALLER DYNAMIC RANGE THAN ITS INPUT

  • ALSO CALL A LEVELING AMPLIFIER

  • IT CONTROLS THE DYNAMIC RANGE


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LIMITERS

  • A COMPRESSOR WHOSE COMPRESSION RATIO EXCEEDS 11:1

  • A COMPRESSOR WHOSE OUTPUT STAYS BELOW A PRE-SET LEVEL


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USES OF COMPRESSOR/LIMITERS

1. SMOOTH THE DYNAMIC RANGE

2. IMPROVE SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY

3. IMPROVE S/N RATIO

4. CREATE THE EFFECT OF LOWERING AMPLITUDE


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EXPANDER

  • INCREASES THE DYNAMIC RANGE


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NOISE GATES

  • A DYNAMIC PROCESSOR THAT ALLOWS A SIGNAL TO PASS AT A PREDETERMINED POINT (THRESHOLD) BUT BLOCKS THOSE OF LESS AMPLITUDE

  • WORKS LIKE AN ON-OFF SWITCH FOR A MICROPHONE

  • DO NOT CONFUSE WITH NOISE PROCESSORS


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NOISE PROCESSORS

  • ONLY TASK IS TO REDUCE ANALOG TAPE HISS

  • USES A UNIQUE DEVICE CALLED A COMPANDER WHICH IS A COMBINATION COMPRESSOR AND EXPANDER


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