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Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes through Systems Approach to Evidence Based Care. Les Barnette, MD Medical Director, Healthcare Improvement. Evidence Review . 30,000 foot overview over the cardiovascular literature jungle Looking for major landmarks . Goals.

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improving cardiovascular outcomes through systems approach to evidence based care

Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes through Systems Approach to Evidence Based Care

Les Barnette, MD

Medical Director, Healthcare Improvement

evidence review
Evidence Review
  • 30,000 foot overview over the cardiovascular literature jungle
  • Looking for major landmarks
goals
Goals
  • To briefly review major cardiovascular strategies for treatment of AMI, and summarize the evidence of benefit
  • To keep you awake
acute myocardial infarction
Acute Myocardial Infarction
  • Use of Aspirin
  • Use of Beta Blockers
  • Use of ACE Inhibitors
  • Use of Acute Reperfusion Strategies
  • Role of Cholesterol Management
concepts
Concepts
  • Relative Risk Reduction--RRR
  • Absolute Risk Reduction--ARR
  • Number Needed to Treat--NNT (1/ARR)
example
Example
  • If study shows reduction in mortality from 8% to 4% then
  • Relative Risk Reduction is 50%
  • Absolute Risk Reduction is 4%
  • Number needed to treat to save one life is 25 (1/0.04)
ami aspirin use
AMI--Aspirin Use
  • Early use
  • ISIS-2 trial
    • Randomized to ASA 162.5 mg, IV SK, both or neither
    • SK or ASA vs placebo 23-25% RRR (2.4-2.8% ARR)
  • Antiplatelet Trialist\'s Collaboration
    • in AMI-reduction in one month mortality from 14 to 10%
aspirin use
Aspirin Use
  • National median 84%
  • National range 65-97%
  • Washington State 86%
beta blockers in acute mi
Beta Blockers in Acute MI
  • Early use (<12 hours)
  • Late use (at discharge)
beta blockers early use
Beta Blockers--Early Use
  • Initiation IV within first 12 hours of MI
  • Benefits independent of concomitant thrombolytic therapy
  • Appears to reduce:
    • infarct size in patients not receiving thrombolytics
    • rate of reinfarction in patients receiving thrombolytics
beta blocker use early in mi
Beta Blocker Use Early in MI
  • TIMI 2B
    • All patients treated with tPA in < 4 hours
    • Immediate IV Metoprolol followed by oral v. oral Metoprolol on day 6
  • ISIS-1
    • acute MI treated with IV atenolol within 12 hours
  • MIAMI
    • IV metoprolol
    • No thrombolytics
timi 2b results
TIMI-2B Results
  • No overall mortality difference
  • BUT
    • lower incidence of reinfarction 2.7% v 5.1%
    • lower incidence of recurrent ischemia 18.8% v 24.1%
isis 1 results
ISIS-1 Results
  • 7 day mortality reduced from 4.6% - 3.9% (p<0.04)
  • Mortality difference was evident by end of Day 1 and sustained
miami results
MIAMI Results
  • 15 day mortality 4.9% v. 4.3% (p=0.29)
  • BUT only 15% received beta blockers within 6 hours (v. ISIS 38% in 4 hours)
  • Emphasizes need for earlier administration of beta-blockers
meta analysis of early beta blockers
Meta-analysis of Early Beta Blockers
  • 7 day mortality 4.3% v 3.7%
  • NNT= 167
beta blockers late use
Beta Blockers--Late Use
  • Initiation within first few days of MI
  • BHAT
    • Used propanolol in patients with documented acute MI
    • Excluded patients likely to have CABG
    • 2-4 year follow-up
bhat results
BHAT Results
  • Total Mortality 9.8% v 7.2%
  • Sudden death 4.6% v 3.3%
  • NNT to prevent one death over 2-4 years=38
caveats
Caveats
  • Most benefit from beta blockers in patients with:
    • recurrent ischemia
    • clinical evidence of LV dysfunction
    • arrhythmia
beta blocker use in mi
Early Use of Beta Blockers

WA State 67%

Nat’l median 64%

Nat’l range 33-80%

Beta Blockers at Discharge

WA State 66%

Nat’l median 72%

Nat’l range 47-93%

Beta Blocker Use in MI
ace inhibitors in ami
ACE Inhibitors in AMI
  • ACC/AHA Recommendation
    • Within 24 hours of presentation in acute MI with two or more anterior leads involved or with heart failure
    • in MI with EF <40%
    • CHF secondary to systolic pump dysfunction during and after convalescence
    • absence of significant hypotension (SBP<100) or contraindication to ACEI
evidence for ace inhibitors in ami
Evidence for ACE Inhibitors in AMI
  • All studies using oral ACE Inhibitors have shown benefit
    • ISIS 4--58000 patients, Captopril, <24h after onset
    • 7% RRR in 5 week mortality, maintained at 1 year(7.19 v7.69%)
    • Greatest benefit in anterior MI or prior MI
    • 5 deaths prevented per 1000 patients treated (NNT=200)
evidence for ace inhibitors in ami continued
Evidence for ACE Inhibitors in AMI (continued)
  • SAVE (Survival and Ventricular Enlargement Trial)
  • Captopril given 3-16 days post MI to patients with LV dysfunction (mean EF 31%) mean f/u 42 months
  • Mortality reduced 19%/decreased onset of severe CHF/ hospitalization
  • Reduced risk of recurrent MI by 25%
hope trial
HOPE Trial
  • RCT studying effect of ACE I and Vit E on cardiac events
  • N=9541 Age >55 with hx of CVD event or DM and additional CVD risk factor
  • Ramipril 10 mg/day
  • Mean f/u 4.5 years
outcomes
Outcomes
  • MI/CVA or death ARR 3.6% NNT 27
  • Total Mortality ARR 2.0% NNT 50
  • Revascularization ARR 2.3% NNT 43
  • Suggests that all patients (>55 ?) with CVD or DM + CVD risk factors should be on ACEI
ace i post mi
ACE I post MI
  • Washington State 76%
  • National median 71%
  • USA range 59-84%
reperfusion in ami
Reperfusion in AMI
  • 1980 DeWood et al published evidence that AMI caused by acute coronary occlusion due to thrombus
  • 1986 GISSI published showing benefit of IV Streptokinase in acute MI
    • 21 day mortality 10.7% v 13%
    • larger relative reduction if given within 3 hours
reperfusion in ami cont
Reperfusion in AMI (cont)
  • 15 years of accumulated studies showing thrombolysis reduces mortality in acute MI
  • Various thrombolytics (Streptokinase, tPA, rPA…)
  • Various protocols (bolus, front loaded…)
acc aha recommendations
ACC/AHA Recommendations
  • Thrombolytics indicated in AMI with ST elevation in two contiguous leads
  • <12 hours since onset of symptoms
  • Age <75 (increased risk >75, but still may be beneficial)
  • Bundle branch block obscuring ST changes and hx c/w MI
benefits greatest in
Benefits greatest in
  • Early administration (<3 hours)
  • Anterior MI
  • HR > 100
  • Low blood pressure
mechanical re perfusion
Mechanical Re-perfusion
  • Primary PTCA is an alternative to thrombolytic therapy … “only if performed in a timely fashion by individuals skilled in the procedure and supported by experienced personnel in high volume centers.”
meta analysis of thrombolytics vs ptca
Meta-analysis of Thrombolytics vs PTCA
  • 30 day mortality 6.5% v 4.4%
  • Death plus nonfatal reinfarction 11.9% v 7.2%
  • Stroke 2% v 0.7%
slide32

“Primary PTCA appears to be superior to thrombolytic therapy... with the proviso that success rates for PTCA are as good as those achieved in the trials”

intracoronary stent for acute mi
Intracoronary Stent for Acute MI
  • PAMI-STENT trial (PTCA v Stent)
    • high rate of primary success. (98% of patients randomized to stent got one)
    • 15% crossover for bailout stent
    • better initial success with stent (25% v 11% residual stenosis)
    • angiographic restenosis (>50%) at 6 months 20% v 32%
pami stent cont d
PAMI-STENT (cont’d)
  • Target vessel revascularization 21% v 13%
  • No significant difference in death, recurrent MI, or disabling stroke
key to success is rapid delivery of effective therapy
Key to Success is Rapid Delivery of Effective Therapy
  • MITI II looking at prehospital delivery of thrombolytic therapy
  • Patients treated in <70 minutes from onset of symptoms had 2 year survival of 98% versus those treated >70 minutes who had 88% survival
washington state performance
Washington State Performance
  • Time to thrombolytic therapy delivery 46 minutes (Median 40)
  • Time to PTCA 121 minutes (ACC/AHA Goal 60-90 minutes)
scandinavian simvastatin survival study 4s
Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S)
  • Randomized 4444 patients with angina or MI
  • Mean follow-up 5.4 years
  • Baseline cholesterol 210-310 mg/dl
  • Dose titrated to cholesterol 115-200 mg/dl
4s outcomes
4S Outcomes
  • Cholesterol decreased 25%, LDL 35%
  • Mortality reduced from 11.5% to 8.2% (NNT=30)
  • Risk of major coronary event reduced from 22.6% to 15.9% (NNT=15)
  • Revascularization reduced from 17.2% to 11.3% (NNT=17)
selected references myocardial infarction
Selected References--Myocardial Infarction

DeWood MA, et al.Prevalence of total coronary occlusion during the early hours of transmural myocardial infarction. NEJM. 1980; 303: 897-902.

ACC/AHA Practice Guidelines. Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction. JACC 1996; 28:1328-1428 JACC 1999; 34; 891-911.

Antiplatelet Trialist’s Collaboration. Collaborative overview of randomized trials of antiplatelet therapy. M\BMJ 1994,308: 81-106.

selected references myocardial infarction ii
The MIAMI Trial Research Group. Metoprolol in Acute Mycardial Infarction: patient population. Am J Card. 1985; 56: 1G-57G.

ISIS-2 (Second International Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Randomized trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected myocardial infarction. ISIS-2. Lancet 1988,2: 349-360.

The TIMI Study Group. Comparison of invasive and conservation strategies after treatment with tissue plasminogen activator in acute myocardial infarction: result of the thrombolysis in myocardial (TIMI) phase II trial. NEJM. 1989.320: 618-627

Selected References--Myocardial Infarction II
selected references myocardial infarction iii
Selected References--Myocardial Infarction III

Ferguson J. Meeting Highlights. Highlights of the 71st Scientific Session of the American Heart Association(news) Circulation 1999, 99: 2486-2491. (STENT-PAMI)

Pfeffer, MA et al. Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Results of the survival and ventricular enlargement trial. The SAVE Investigators. NEJM 1992;327:669-77

slide44
Thank You

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