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Measurement of 1.0g soil sieved -80 mesh. Making of 2L aqueous extraction fluid with DI water and 60.06g glycine. 1. 2. 1. Adjustment to pH 1.5 by conc. HCl. Putting of 1.0g soil and 100mL extraction fluid into wide-mouth HDPE bottle. 4. 3. 5.

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Measurement of 1.0g

soil sieved -80 mesh

Making of 2L aqueous extraction fluid

with DI water and 60.06g glycine

1

2

1

Adjustment to pH 1.5

by conc. HCl

Putting of 1.0g soil and 100mL extraction fluid

into wide-mouth HDPE bottle

4

3

5

Placing of the bottle into extractor of water bath

maintained at 37 oC

6

6

7

Rotating of extractor at 30 rpm for 1 hour

7

Extraction of 10mL fluid from reaction vessel

Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil

Abstract

Geological Map of the Chubu Area

Mine

As

Cd

Zn

Dongil mine

5.76

2.56

0.80

Okdong mine

8.88

1.11

0.44

Songcheon mine

26.32

0.42

10.74

SBET (Simple Bioavailability Extraction Test)

Dongjung mine

1.00

0.13

0.02

Dokok mine

0.11

3.45

0.03

Hwacheon mine

5.38

0.97

0.57

Mine

Soil pathway

Groundwater pathway

Rice grain pathway

Bacillus carboniphilus JCM9731

79

Bacillus sporothermodurans M215

45

Dongil mine

3.1 x 10-6

6.6 x 10-4

3.6 x 10-4

39

Bacillus shackletonii LMG 18435

Bacillus aeolius 41

Okdong mine

1.2 x 10-6

7.2 x 10-4

8.5 x 10-4

52

Bacillus marisflavi TF11

Songcheon mine

2.0 x 10-5

4.6 x 10-3

-

Bacillus aquimaris TF12

85

Bacillus vietnamensis 151

95

Dongjung mine

8.0 x 10-6

1.7 x 10-4

-

Bacillus muralis LMG 20238

54

Dokok mine

6.8 x 10-7

1.9 x 10-5

-

Bacillus niacini IFO15566

Bacillus siralis 171544

62

Hwacheon mine

1.6 x 10-6

1.3 x 10-4

8.2 x 10-4

Bacillus flexus IFO15715

52

44

SPb-1

Bacillus thuringiensis NCIMB 9134

91

Bacillus thuringiensis ATCC10792

90

Bacillus weihenstephanensis DSM11821

100

Bacillus mycoides ATCC6462

96

Bacillus mycoides 6462

90

Bacillus halmapalus DSM 8723

Bacillus luciferensis LMG 18422

97

Heavy Metals Contamination in Soil and Their Risk Assessment and

Bioremediation in Korea : Case Histories

Hyo-Taek Chon*1) , Jin-Soo Lee2) , and Jong-Un Lee3)

  • Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, Korea ( [email protected])

  • Technology Research Center, Mine Reclamation Corporation, Seoul 110-727, Korea

  • Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Korea

In this paper some case histories on heavy metals contamination in soil, human risk assessment around metal mine areas, and bioremediation of heavy metals-contaminated sites are reviewed. Heavy metal contamination in soil is classified into two categories; one is natural enrichment of heavy metals in soil from high background source rocks, and the other is anthropogenic contamination from non-point and point sources. Some potentially toxic elements are highly enriched in areas covered with black shale. The level and dispersion patterns of Se and U in soil underlain by black shale were discussed in regional and local scales. Heavy metals contamination in the areas of abandoned base metal mines was investigated. The concept of pollution index (PI) of soils gives important information on the extent and degree of multi-element contamination and can be applied to the evaluation of soils before their agricultural use and remediation. Pollution level of Pt in dusts and soils from various traffic volume urban roads in and around Seoul, capital city of Korea, waspresented. Environmental geochemical surveys were undertaken around some abandoned metal mine sites to investigate the bioavailability of As and heavy metals by the SBET (simple bioavailability extraction test) method and to assess the risk of adverse health effects on human exposure to heavy metals influenced by previous mining activities. One case history on biosorption of cation heavy metals to microbial cells is introduced to present its potential for the bioremediation of contaminated field site.

Natural Enrichment

(The Occurrence and Dispersion of Potentially Toxic Elements in Areas Covered with Black Shales)

Se and U Concentrations in Soils in Dukpyung Area

- Local Scale

- Regional Scale

Heavy metal concentration in soils

Geological Map of Dukpyung Area

Study Area

Enrichment Index (EI) Map

Dukpyung

Se

Chubu

Se and U Concentrations in Soils in Chubu Area

Guryongsan (north) and Changri (south) Black Shale Formation

EI =

Se

U

Anthropogenic Soil Contamination

1) Heavy Metals Contamination around Metal Mine Sites

2) Pollution Level of Platinum in Urban Environment

Pt levels in road dusts

PI (Pollution Index)

Seoul metropolitan city in Korea

  • The capital city of Korea

  • The total area : 605.52km²

  • Population : 10,456,095 as of the 1/4 of 2008

  • 2.95 million vehicles were on register in 2008

  • Mean traffic volume : 4.6 million vehicles/day in 2004

PI > 1 : metal concentrations in soil are above the tolerable level

PI < 1 : average level of metals in soil is below the tolerable level

PI =

Heavy metal concentrations around

the Sambo Pb-Zn barite mine

Soil Sampling locations around the Sambo Pb-Zn barite mine

Pollution index in soils around

the Sambo Pb-Zn barite mine

Pt level vs. Traffic Volume

There is a tendency to increase Pt levels in road dusts along with traffic volume

Highest level(Busy road in Seoul)

Lowest level(Suburbs of Seoul)

Hazard indices of As, Cd and Zn for toxic (non-cancer) risk

Human Risk Assessment around Abandoned MetalMine Sites

Multiple Pathways of Exposure

Abandoned Metal Mine Sites

1. Aqueous effluents entering surface

and groundwater systems

2. Contaminated dust entering surface

water bodies

3. Contaminated surface and

groundwater used for irrigation and

drinking

4. Disposal of contaminated articulate

matter onto agricultural soils

5. Soil ingestion

(through bad hygiene)

6. Plant uptake from soils

7. Ingestion of contaminated plants

Results of cancer risk for As with exposure pathway

Bioremediation

Identification of the Isolated Bacterium from Contaminated Soil

Experimental Procedure of Biosorption

Biosorption Effects of Pb and Cd by SPb-1 According to the Initial Concentrations of the Heavy Metals

Isolation of bacteria from oil-contaminated soil

Adaptation of isolated bacteria to Pb and incubation

Mixing of Pb solution and cells in various condition

Separation of biomass by centrifugation

Analysis of residual Pb and Cd concentrations by AAS

Pb

Cd


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