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Gagaku. Oldest ensemble (“orchestra”) music in world Japanese Imperial ensemble founded in 702/3 Chief influences: - China – “music of the left” - Korea – “music of the right” Maintained through “Guild” system Used w/ Dance = Bugaku. Gagaku. Hichirichi. oboe type (double reed)

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Gagaku

  • Oldest ensemble (“orchestra”) music in world

  • Japanese Imperial ensemble founded in 702/3

  • Chief influences:- China – “music of the left”- Korea – “music of the right”

  • Maintained through “Guild” system

  • Used w/ Dance = Bugaku



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Hichirichi

  • oboe type (double reed)

  • Melody instrument

  • Back row

  • YouTube - Japanese Sho & Hichiriki


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Ryuteki

  • Flute type (transverse)

  • Also known as “dragon flute”

  • Melody instrument

  • YouTube - GAGAKU - ETENRAKU - Ryuteki ver. 2


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Sho

  • Mouth organ (free reed)

  • 17 separate pipes

  • Tone clusters

  • YouTube - Sho (opening only)


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Biwa

  • Lute type

  • 5 strings

  • Rhythm instrument

  • YouTube - biwa - japanese traditional music


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Koto

  • Zither type

  • 13 strings

  • Rhythm instrument

  • Sometimes replaced by “Wagon”

“Wagon”


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Shoko

  • Gong

  • Colotomic structure



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Kakko

  • Small side drum

  • Leader of the ensemble


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Gagaku Examples

  • YouTube - Gagaku music (Gojouraku-kyuu) from Japan

  • YouTube - The old court music "Etenraku" played by "Youyukai".

  • YouTube - Japanese ceremonial court music and the dance_3


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Kodŏ

  • NB. None of this information is in the textbook (see the course website for a link)

  • Japanese Drumming ensemble, founded 1971

  • “Kodŏ” means either- “heartbeat” (the primal source of all rhythm)- “children of the drum”

  • A new ensemble that seeks to “preserve and re-interpret traditional Japanese performing arts” (from Kodŏ website)


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Kodŏ (2)

  • Primary instruments are various types of “Taiko” drums (“stick drums”)

  • Ranges in size up several feet in diameter

  • Physically very demanding to play


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Kodŏ (3)

  • Members of Kodŏ join a community to live and practice together

  • Emphasis is on a life style that respects traditions, but also creates new ones


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Kodŏ (4)

YouTube: KODO | One Earth Tour Schedule


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Kodŏ (5)

YouTube - Kodo - Drummers


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Video

  • “Kodŏ : Heartbeat Drummers of Japan”

  • 58 minutes (we will watch as much as we can)

  • Watch for elements of “tradition”- in music (relation to past)- in lifestyle

  • How is this group like other Japanese music?


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Kodŏ on Tour

  • “One Earth Tour” : March 2009

  • Includes stops in- Clearwater- Jacksonville-Melbourne- West Palm Beach- Miami

  • See their website for details (link on course page)


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