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Equine Behavior. Environment Experiences Diet Exercise Stress. Genetics Gender Type Breed Family group. What Affects Behavior?. Smell Identify other horses Mating Locate water, feed Vomeronasal organ Pheromones Ears & Hearing Detect sounds Determine location of sound

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what affects behavior
Environment

Experiences

Diet

Exercise

Stress

Genetics

Gender

Type

Breed

Family group

What Affects Behavior?
slide3
Smell
    • Identify other horses
    • Mating
    • Locate water, feed
    • Vomeronasal organ
    • Pheromones
  • Ears & Hearing
    • Detect sounds
    • Determine location of sound
    • To provide sensory information
    • Hear in range 14 Hz to 25 kHz (humans 20 Hz to 20 kHz)
    • Auricle – 180o rotation
    • Ear position generally relates to visual attention
slide4
Touch
    • Responsive to pain, pressure, cold and heat
    • Sensitive areas
      • Eyes, ears and nose
      • Withers, ribs, flanks and legs
    • Suffers fatigue
vision
VISION
  • Primary detector of danger
  • Acute ability to detect movement
  • Monocular & Binocular vision
    • Monocular field of vision: 215o for each eye
    • Binocular field of vision: 60o-70o
  • Often raise head to observe close objects
  • Lower head to observe faraway objects

Monocular field

Up to 215o

Binocular field

60-70o

Marginal zone

Monocular field

visual signs
Visual Signs
  • Ears
  • Tail
  • Mouth & lips
  • Eyes
  • Nostrils
social organization
Social Organization
  • Harem
  • Family
  • Mares
  • Stallion
  • Bachelor Group
ten natural survival traits
Ten Natural Survival Traits
  • Depends on flight as its primary means of survival
  • One of the most perceptive of all domestic animals
  • Very fast response time
  • Can be desensitized from frightening stimuli
  • Horses forgive, but do not forget
ten natural survival traits11
Ten Natural Survival Traits
  • Horses categorize
    • A) something not to fear, so ignore or explore
    • B) Something to fear, so flee
  • Horses are easily dominated
  • Horses exert dominance by controlling the movement of their peers. Horse accept dominance when:
    • We or another animal cause them to move when they prefer not to
    • We or another animal inhibit movement when they want to flee
ten natural survival traits12
Ten Natural Survival Traits
  • The body language of a horse is unique to the equine species
  • Horse is a precocial species (newborn foals are neurologically mature at birth)
types of horse behavior
Types of Horse Behavior
  • Ingestive behavior
  • Eliminative behavior
  • Epimeletic behavior -Care-giving & care-seeking behavior
types of horse behavior14
Types of Horse Behavior
  • Sexual
    • Polygamous
    • One offspring
    • Seasonal Breeders
    • Fetal behavior
    • Parturient behavior
horse behavior
Self-care behavior

Homeostatic influences

Grooming

Rest

Awake 80%

Drowsiness 8%

Sleep 12%

Autogroom

Mutual Groom

Horse Behavior
types of horse behavior investigative behavior
Types of Horse BehaviorInvestigative Behavior
  • Play behavior
  • Exploratory behavior
types of horse behavior17
Types of Horse Behavior
  • Allelomimetic Behavior
    • Mimicry
types of horse behavior19
Types of Horse Behavior
  • Dominance/Submission (Social Order)
horse behavior20
Horse Behavior
  • Spacing
    • Individual distance
    • Group distance
    • Social distance
    • Flight distance
    • Home range
    • Territorial
activity
Activity
  • Diurnal
  • Travel up to 16 km/d (10 mile/d)
  • Home range, can be up to 1000 ha.(2500 acres)
  • Range: 0.8-303 sq. km (0.5-188 sq. mile)
behavioral considerations in equine handling
Behavioral Considerations in Equine Handling
  • HERD INSTINCT
  • HOMING INSTINCT
  • FLIGHT
  • DOMINANCE HEIREACHY
  • TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR
  • SELF-DEFENSE
  • HABIT
stress
Good Stress – The stressful condition in which the horse can find a solution that will relieve the stress

Harmful Stress – A stressful condition in which there is no possible solution or escape.

Stress
responses to harmful stress
Responses To Harmful Stress
  • Habituate
  • Develop abnormal behavior
  • Permanent fear memory
equine stereotypes
Equine Stereotypes
  • Oral
    • Cribbing
    • Tongue movements
    • Lip movements
equine stereotypes27
Equine Stereotypes
  • Locomotion
    • Head movements (bobbing, tossing, shaking, swinging, nodding)
    • Throat rubbing
    • Pacing
    • Weaving
    • Fence or stall walking
equine stereotypes28
Equine Stereotypes
  • Locomotion
    • Circling
    • Stomping
    • Kicking
    • Pawing
    • Digging
    • Tail rubbing
equine stereotypes29
Equine Stereotypes
  • Self-Mutilation
    • Self-biting (flank, chest, shoulder)
    • Wall-kicking
    • Lunging into objects
equine vices
EQUINE VICES
  • AGGRESSIVE VICES
    • Biting
    • Charging
    • Crowding
    • Rearing
    • Kicking
    • Striking
    • Fighting
equine vices31
EQUINE VICES
  • METABOLIC VICES
    • Coprophagy or dirt eating
    • Cribbing
    • Mane and tail chewing
    • Wood chewing
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