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CS2172 Fundamentals of Computing Introduction Lecturer and Tutors Dr. Kenneth Lee E-mail: kclee@cs.cityu.edu.hk What you’ll learn in this semester General overview of computer technology WWW and Internet Network Models and Protocols Internals of computer and processor

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CS2172 Fundamentals of Computing Introduction

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Cs2172 fundamentals of computing introduction l.jpg

CS2172 Fundamentals of ComputingIntroduction


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Lecturer and Tutors

  • Dr. Kenneth Lee

  • E-mail: kclee@cs.cityu.edu.hk


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What you’ll learn in this semester

  • General overview of computer technology

  • WWW and Internet

  • Network Models and Protocols

  • Internals of computer and processor

  • Different types of Input/Output and storage hardware

  • Operating Systems

  • Multi-Media Computing

  • Some interesting up-to-date news.


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Pattern of teaching

  • We’ll have 2 hours of lectures every Wednesday

  • 1 hour of tutorial/lab during weekdays

    • Lectures will be focusing on theory

    • Hands-on exercises will be given during tutorials

    • Hands-on will be related to application programs, covering part of the features in Dreamweaver, Flash and MS Office


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Assessment

  • 40% of total mark is contributed by coursework

  • One individual assignment (release in about week 3)

  • One group assignment & presentation (release in about week 10)

  • One 1hr mid-term quiz (in about week 9)


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Reference Books

  • There is no "official" text book set for this course, yet the followings are reasonably good:

B.Williams and S.Sawyer,

Using Information Technology, 6th Ed,

Complete Version,

McGraw-Hill, 2005

Bill Daley,

Computers Are Your Future, Complete (9th Ed),

Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007


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Reference Books

  • Most of the materials will be given as handouts.

  • Supplementary reading lists will be provided in the class when needed.

Alan Evans, Mary Ann Poatsy, Kendall Martin

Technology in Action, Complete (5th Edition) (Go!),

Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008


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Chapter 1 – Expected Outcome

  • After this lecture, students are expected to be able to

  • Describe the roles of computer in daily life.

  • Name the different types of computer and briefly describe their common use.

  • Describe what are software and hardware with examples.

  • Name the hardware (Input / Output / Process / Storage / Communication) found in typical computer and briefly explain their respective usage.

  • Give examples on the major types of computer abuse.


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How computers change our life?

  • Normalization of technology

This ‘telephone’ has too

many shortcomings to be seriously considered

as a means of communication. The

device is inherently of no value to us

Western Union Internal Memo 1876

Radio: The wireless music box has no

imaginable commercial value. Who would

pay for a message sent to nobody in

particular?

I think there is a world market

for maybe FIVE computers.

Thomas Watson (Founder IBM) 1943

640K should be enough

memory for any body.

Bill Gates, 1981 (attributed, but denied)


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How computers change our life?

  • Communication (Long dist. phone v.s. Skype 1:1->M:M)

  • Gathering after school -> icq -> msn

  • Entertainment (cinema -> DVD / youtube)

  • Project/Reports (paper-based -> doc / ppt)

  • Activities in daily life:

    News: http://www.cnn.com

    Banking: http://main.hangseng.com

    Shopping: http://www.wellcome.com.hkhttp://hk.auctions.yahoo.com/


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Communications


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Communications


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Media / Entertainment


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Media / Entertainment

  • Computer graphics is used in films nowadays

    • To replace expensive physical models

    • Objects can be duplicated easily

    • Shorten the time-to-market

      Examples:

    • Jurassic Park

    • Terminator


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Media / Entertainment

  • The technology became mature and high quality CG rendering is now readily available to typical home-use computers at affordable price

“Head” demo from NVidia (8800GTX), 2007

Wolf 3D from id Soft, 1991


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What’s so special about computer

  • What makes computer different from other machines is that:

Computer

runs program!

By changing the program (instructions), the same computer can be used to perform different function

(That’s why X-Box can be hacked to run Linux OS)


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The Varieties of ComputersAll Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines

  • Supercomputers

  • Mainframes

  • Workstations

  • Microcomputers

  • Microcontrollers

Supercomputer


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Supercomputer

  • Fastest, most powerful, most expensive among the categories

  • Suitable for intensive calculations and processing

  • e.g. Deep Blue, Blue Gene

  • Example Application:

  • weather maps, construction of atom bombs, finding oil, earthquake prediction, etc.


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All Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines

  • Supercomputers

  • Mainframes

  • Workstations

  • Microcomputers

  • Microcontrollers

Mainframe


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Mainframes

mainframes support more simultaneous programs.

But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe

  • Allows hundreds of people to have simultaneous computer usage

  • Used in large business environment (eg. bank)

  • Processing speed: > 1,000,000,000,000 instructions per second


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All Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines

  • Supercomputers

  • Mainframes

  • Workstations

  • Microcomputers

  • Microcontrollers

Workstation: Sun Ultra450


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All Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines

  • Supercomputers

  • Mainframes

  • Workstations

  • Microcomputers

  • Microcontrollers

HP Compaq microcomputer


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All Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines

  • Supercomputers

  • Mainframes

  • Workstations

  • Microcomputers

  • Microcontrollers

Apple i-Mac computer


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All Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines

  • Supercomputers

  • Mainframes

  • Workstations

  • Microcomputers

  • Microcontrollers

Laptop computer


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All Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines

  • Tablet computer

  • Specialized notebook equipped with touch-screen / tablet input. Instead of using keyboard, users could also input via handwriting recognition / virtual keyboard

  • UMPC (Ultra-Mobile PC):

  • A market product / spec by the collaboration of Microsoft, Intel, Samsung and a others


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All Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines

Owing to market demand, a new spectrum of products is being developed and the boundary is becoming un-clear.

One example is the so-called “sub-notebooks” with dimension from 9 inches to 14 inches


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All Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines

  • Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)

    • Perform simple tasks

    • Small screen

    • Input and output ?

  • Supercomputers

  • Mainframes

  • Workstations

  • Microcomputers

  • Microcontrollers

Hand-held

Personal Digital Assistant


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All Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines

  • Supercomputers

  • Mainframes

  • Workstations

  • Microcomputers

  • Microcontrollers

DSP: Digital Signal Processor


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Wait… you missed “Servers”…

  • Actually “Server” is not the name of a type of computer…

  • But rather, “Server” is defined as the party providing service.

  • (on the other hand, the party requesting service is “Client”)

For Example

(email/webpage access):

Server:

The machine which stores your email / web page

Clients:

PCs, workstations which access mail / webpage (e.g. running I.E.)


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Computers in the future – PC in year 2015

More convenient:

E-Book with Dual monitor?


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Computers in the future – PC in year 2015

More environment-friendly: Solar notebook?


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Computers in the future – PC in year 2015

  • PC anywhere?

Only time will tell whether those concepts could survive


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Data

The raw facts and figures that are processed into information

Information

Data that has been summarized or otherwise manipulated for use in decision making

So, what is the common point?

Although computers differ in size, price and usage, but as mentioned earlier, they are common in a way that they all

run programs. Another common point is that computers

process data into information.

Exam marks

Class average/distribution

Profit / business strategy

Purchase records


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Hardware

All the machinery and equipment in a computer system

Software

All the instructions that tell the computer how to perform a task

Hardware and software

Since computer is a generic machine which is capable of doing different tasks, you need to provide the computer with command / instructions (i.e. SOFTWARE)

+

=


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications

Keyboard

Thanks to the improvement

of technology. Wireless ver

is more common

Mouse


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications

Case or system cabinet


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications

Motherboard


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications

Processor chip


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Primary storage (memory) - RAM

Computer circuitry that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed

Secondary storage (storage) -

The area in the computer where data or information is held permanently

How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications

Memory chips


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications

Hard-disk drive


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications

CD drive


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications

Floppy disk

Zip disk


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications

Flash Memory

and USB Drive


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications

Sound card


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications

Speakers


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications

Monitor


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications

Printer


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How Computers Work - Concept #3All computers follow the same five basic operations.

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Output

  • Communications


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Put all the hardware together and…


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You still need the software!

  • System software

  • Helps the computer perform essential operating tasks and enables the application software to run

  • (Resource Manager)

  • and…


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You still need the software!

  • Application software

  • Enables you to perform specific tasks. e.g:

  • Word Processing

  • Photo Editing

  • Creating web pages

  • Computer Games…


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Abuse of computers

  • As mentioned earlier, computer technologies is “normalized” and integrates to our daily life, but…

  • Hackers

    • People who use their computers to break into other computers

  • Computer virus

    • A piece of software which spreads (reproduce) itself. It is usually designed to cause annoyance

    • or damage


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Abuse of computers

  • Spam mail

    • The California legislature found that spam cost United States organizations alone more than $13 billion in 2007

    • (including lost productivity and the additional equipment, software, and manpower needed to combat the problem.)

  • Phishing

    • “Fake” sites /email which intends to steal information (password / credit card number) from users.


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References

  • Williams . Sawyer, “Using Information Technology”, 6th edition, McGraw-Hill, Chapter. 1

  • Bill Daley, “Computers are your future”, Pearson Prentice Hall, Chapter. 1

  • Timothy J. Linda I., “Computing Essentials complete edition”, McGraw-Hill, Chapter. 1


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