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Lead Black Slide. Chapter 4. Information System Hardware. Our Agenda. Computer Organization Input and Output Devices Primary Storage The Central Processing Unit Secondary Storage. Learning Objectives. Describe the main components of the computer. List common input and output devices

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Chapter 4 l.jpg

Chapter 4

Information System Hardware

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Our Agenda

  • Computer Organization

  • Input and Output Devices

  • Primary Storage

  • The Central Processing Unit

  • Secondary Storage

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Learning Objectives

  • Describe the main components of the computer.

  • List common input and output devices

  • Describe how is data represented in a computer?

  • Describe how primary storage is organized.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Learning Objectives (cont’d.)

  • Describe the structure and function of the central processing unit (CPU).

  • Describe how is data stored and retrieved using common forms of secondary storage?

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Computer Organization

Information System Hardware

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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What is a computer

  • A computer is a device that is

    • Electronic

    • Can store data

    • Can store and follow a set of software instructions, called a program.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Input Devices

  • An input device accepts data from outside the computer and converts it into an electronic form the computer can understand.

  • Examples include a keyboard, mouse, scanner, digital pen, and digital tablet.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Output Devices

  • An output device converts data from an electronic form inside the computer to a form that can be used outside the computer.

  • Examples include a screen, monitor, printer, and fax.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Primary Storage

  • Primary storage, also called internal storage, is the “memory”, or RAM, of the computer.

  • Primary storage, which is temporary storage, is dependent upon continuous electrical power. Any interruption of electrical power causes the contents of primary storage to be lost.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • The CPU, or processor, carries out the instructions of the program. It contains circuits that perform arithmetic and logical operations.

  • Data is transferred from primary storage to the CPU with the results sent back to primary storage.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Secondary Storage

  • Secondary storage, also called auxiliary storage, stores data not currently being processed by the computer and represents permanent storage.

  • Data is usually transferred to and from primary storage.

  • Examples include hard disks, floppy disks, ZIP disks, CDROMs, and DVDs.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Input and Output Devices

Information System Hardware

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Keyboards

  • Most widely used input device.

  • Possible physical problems include

    • Repetitive strain injuries

    • Carpal tunnel syndrome

  • Ergonomically designed keyboards may improve user comfort and efficiency and reduce risk of injury.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Pointing Devices

  • Mouse

  • Trackball

  • Trackpoint

  • Trackpad, also called a touchpad

  • Cursor

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Other input devices

  • Touch screen

  • Pen input

  • Graphics tablet

  • Digitizer tablet

  • Light pen

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Optical Scanning Input Devices

  • Bar-code scanner

    • Universal Product Code (UPC)

  • Flat bed, or page scanner

  • Automatic document feeder (ADF) scanner

  • Optical Character Recognition (OCR)

  • Mark-sense readers

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Magnetic Scanning Input Devices

  • Magnetic strip reader

    • Credit cards

    • ID Cards

  • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) – used at the bottom of all checks by the banking industry.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Voice Input Devices

  • Voice recognition software

    • Dragon Naturally Speaking

    • Via-Voice

  • Uses a microphone connected to the computer and translates the spoken word to text output.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Digital Input Devices

  • Digital cameras that produce photographic quality images.

  • Cameras connected to the computer for “live” images.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Screens, or Monitor, or CRT

  • Key elements of a “screen” include:

    • Pixels – picture elements arranged as a pattern of dots.

    • Screen resolution – the number of pixels that can be displayed on a screen at one time.

    • Refresh rate – the number of times per second that screen “repaints” itself.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Screens, or Monitor, or CRT (cont’d.)

  • Types of monitors

    • Traditional “tube” monitors, or cathode ray tube (CRT).

    • Flat-panel screens – most common type is liquid crystal display (LCD).

    • Screen projector used to display a computers output on a large screen.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Printers

  • Printer classifications

    • Impact printer

    • Nonimpact printer

    • Serial printers

    • Line printers

    • Page printers

    • Letter-quality printers

    • Draft-quality printers

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Desktop printers

  • Ink-jet, or bubble-jet printer

    • Typically 200 to 300 characters per second

  • Laser printers

    • Typically between 4 and 24 pages per minute.

  • Dot matrix printer

    • Typically between 200 and 300 characters per second.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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High volume printers

  • Line printers

    • High end line printers can print as much as 3,600 lines per minute (at 60 lines per page, that is 60 page per minute) and can cost $50,000.

  • Page printers

    • High end page printers can print as much as 200 pages per minute and can cost $100,000.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Other Output Devices

  • Plotters

  • Voice output devices – converting digitized data into synthesized speech

  • Sound output devices – speakers

  • Specialized devices for people with disabilities – can include large typeface screens, Braille display devices, special pointing devices, or headphones.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Virtual Reality

  • Virtual reality is the use of a computer to produce realistic images and sounds in such a way that the user senses that he or she is a part of the scene.

  • Examples include architectural design, home remodeling, aircraft design, machine design, and more.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Primary Storage

Information System Hardware

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Primary Storage Structure

  • Input data is stored in primary storage (memory) after it is received from an input device.

  • Output data is stored in primary storage before it is sent to an output device.

  • Without sufficient primary storage, it may not be possible to execute certain programs or use certain data.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Primary Storage Structure (cont’d.)

  • Silicon chips – integrated circuits

  • Volatile storage – dependent upon continuous power

    • Random Access Memory (RAM)

  • Non-volatile storage

    • Read-Only Memory (ROM)

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Primary Storage Structure (cont’d.)

  • Binary representation

    • A combination of positive and negative electrical charges, represented by 1s and 0s when written to represent a character.

    • One “charge” is called a bit.

    • Eight bits are required to represent a single character, called a byte.

  • The 256 possible (28) binary combinations are defined in character set.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Primary Storage Structure (cont’d.)

  • Personal computer character set

    • ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange

  • Mainframe computer character set

    • EBCDIC – Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code

  • Though each contains 256 characters, the definitions are not the same, so a “translator” is required for one machine type to “talk” with the other machine type.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Primary Storage Structure (cont’d.)

  • Storage locations of the “bytes” are called allocation units each of which has a unique address.

  • Storage capacities

    • Kilobyte (KB) or 1024 bytes (210) – approximately 1,000 bytes, thus the “kilo”

    • Megabyte (MB) or 1,048,756 bytes (220)

    • Gigabyte (GB) or 1,073,741,824 bytes (230)

    • Terabyte (TB) or 1,099,511,627,776 bytes (240)

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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The Central Processing Unit

Information System Hardware

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Two Main Parts of a CPU

  • Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU)

    • May add, subtract, multiply and divide two numbers. More complex operations are are completed by using sequences of the four basic operations.

  • Control Unit

    • Analyzes and executes instructions in a program. Instructions are brought in one at a time from primary storage.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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CPU Speed

  • Early CPUs processed 8 or 16 bits at a time.

  • Current CPUs process 32 bits, and some can process 64 or 128 bits at a time.

  • The “roadway” from primary storage to the CPU is the bus. Higher bus capacities mean faster computers.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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CPU Speed (cont’d.)

  • Clock speed

    • Measured in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz).

    • One MHz is one million cycles per second.

    • One GHz is one billion cycles per second.

    • Earliest IBM PCs ran at 4.77 MHz.

    • Current PCs run at or above 1,000 MHz (1 GHz).

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Microcomputer

Intel 4004

Intel 8088

Intel 8086

Intel 80286

Intel 80386

Intel 80486

Intel Pentium

Intel Pentium Pro

Intel Pentium II

Intel Pentium III

Apple/Macintosh

Motorola 68000

Motorola 68020

Motorola 68030

Motorola 68040

Motorola Power PC

G3

AMD

Common CPUs

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Minicomputer and Mainframe

Developed by the manufacturer within a “line” of products

HP3000

IBM System/390

DEC Alpha

Supercomputers

Generally specific to a single product

Common CPUs (cont’d.)

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Secondary Storage

Information System Hardware

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Magnetic Disk Storage

Floppy disk

Hard disk

ZIP disk

Disk organization

Disk

Head (or side)

Track

Allocation Unit

Types of Secondary Storage

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Optical Disk Storage

  • Compact disks (CDROMs)

    • Capacity of approximately 600MB

  • Writable Compact Disks (CD-RWs)

    • Capacity of approximately 600MB

  • Digital Video Disks or Digital Versatile Disks (DVDs)

    • Capacity of approximately 4.7GB to 17GB depending on how it is used.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Magnetic Tape Storage

  • Magnetic tape has a capacity of 200MB to over 40GB.

  • Data transferred to the tape via a magnetic tape drive.

  • Data on a tape can only be read sequentially.

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Information Systems Hardware

Key Terms

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Address

Arithmetic-Logic-Unit (ALU)

ASCII

Backup Copy

Bar-Code Scanner

Binary Digit (Bit)

Byte

CD-R/CD-ROM/CD-RW

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Chip

Compact Disk

Computer

Control Unit

VRT

Cursor

Disk Pack

Key Terms

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Dot-Matrix Printer

Draft-Quality Printer

DVD/DVD-ROM

EBCDIC

Ergonomics

Flat Panel Screen

Floppy Disk

Gigabyte (GB)

Gigahertz (GHz)

Hard Disk

Impact Printer

Input Device

Ink-Jet Printer

Keyboard

Kilobyte (KB)

Laser Printer

Letter-Quality Printer

Line Printer

Key Terms (cont’d.)

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Machine Language

Magnetic Disk

Magnetic Disk Drive

Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)

Magnetic Strip Reader

Magnetic Tape

Magnetic Tape Drive

Massively Parallel Processing

Megabyte (MB)

Megahertz (MHz)

Microprocessor

Microsecond

Millisecond

Monitor

Mouse

Key Terms (cont’d.)

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Multifunction Printer

Multimedia

Multiprocessing

Nanosecond

Nonimpact Printer

Nonvolatile Storage

Optical Disk

Optical Disk Drive

Output Device

Page Printer

Parity Bit

Pen Input

Peripheral Equipment

Pixel

Plotter

Primary (Internal) Storage

Printer

Key Terms (cont’d.)

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Processor

Program

RAID

Random Access Memory (RAM)

Random (Direct) Access

Read Only Memory (ROM)

Scanner

Screen

Screen Projector

Screen Resolution

Secondary (Auxiliary) Storage

Sequential Access

Serial Printer

Storage Location

Terabyte (TB)

Key Terms (cont’d.)

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Terminal

Touch Screen

Track

Trackball

Trackpad

Trackpoint

Unicode

Video Display Terminal (VDT)

Virtual Reality

Volatile Storage

Key Terms (cont’d.)

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e


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Summary

  • Computer Organization

  • Input and Output Devices

  • Primary Storage

  • The Central Processing Unit

  • Secondary Storage

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e



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