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Chapter 20. Gender Factors and Exercise. Some gender differences for physiological parameters. Height: men are taller Weight: men weigh more Body Composition: men have less body fat and more fat-free weight VO 2 max: women tend to have lower VO 2 max values and anaerobic capabilities

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Chapter 20 l.jpg

Chapter 20

Gender Factors and Exercise


Some gender differences for physiological parameters l.jpg
Some gender differences for physiological parameters

  • Height:

    • men are taller

  • Weight:

    • men weigh more

  • Body Composition:

    • men have less body fat and more fat-free weight

  • VO2 max:

    • women tend to have lower VO2 max values and anaerobic capabilities

  • Strength:

    • men tend to be stronger than women

  • Strength per unit of muscle mass:

    • no difference

For more information, visit Gender Differences in Endurance Performance and Training at http://home.hia.no/~stephens/gender.htm






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High-intensity exercise and hormonal disturbances in women 2001 (cont.)

  • Delayed menarche

  • Cessation of menstruation

  • Infertility

  • Osteoporosis


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Exercise and the menstrual cycle 2001 (cont.)

  • Intense training programs can result in amenorrhea and other athletic menstrual cycle irregularities (AMI).

  • There is no compelling scientific evidence that the menstrual cycle has a general effect on athletic performance. Individual athletes may or may not be affected.


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The female athlete triad 2001 (cont.)

  • Disordered eating

  • Amenorrhea

  • Osteoporosis


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Sports associated with 2001 (cont.)the female athlete triad

  • Sports that emphasize low body weight:

    • gymnastics, figure skating, diving, cheerleading

  • Sports that use weight categories:

    • horse racing, martial arts, wrestling, rowing


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What should coaches and trainers look for to prevent development of the female athlete triad?

  • Early signs of disordered eating include

    • excessive weight loss

    • avoidance of food

    • use of laxatives and diuretics

    • vomiting

For more information, visit The Physician and Sports Medicine: Female Athlete Triad at www.physsportsmed.com/issues/1996/07_96/smith.htm


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Exercise and pregnancy development of the female athlete triad?

Recommended program

  • any program performed for about 43 minutes a day, three times a week, with a heart rate of no more than 144 beats per minute

  • Normal pregnancy and childbirth should not affect subsequent performance


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    Methods for counteracting the stigma against weight training for women

    • Female role models in the weight room

    • Coeducational coaching staffs

    • Coeducational weight rooms

    • Not communicating lesser expectations to female athletes than to male athletes


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    Precautions for pregnant women during strength training for women

    • Be cautious when performing heavy multi-joint free weight exercise after the first trimester.

    • Pay attention to dress and environment to avoid becoming overheated.


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