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Chapter 20. Gender Factors and Exercise. Some gender differences for physiological parameters. Height: men are taller Weight: men weigh more Body Composition: men have less body fat and more fat-free weight VO 2 max: women tend to have lower VO 2 max values and anaerobic capabilities

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chapter 20

Chapter 20

Gender Factors and Exercise

some gender differences for physiological parameters
Some gender differences for physiological parameters
  • Height:
    • men are taller
  • Weight:
    • men weigh more
  • Body Composition:
    • men have less body fat and more fat-free weight
  • VO2 max:
    • women tend to have lower VO2 max values and anaerobic capabilities
  • Strength:
    • men tend to be stronger than women
  • Strength per unit of muscle mass:
    • no difference

For more information, visit Gender Differences in Endurance Performance and Training at http://home.hia.no/~stephens/gender.htm

high intensity exercise and hormonal disturbances in women
High-intensity exercise and hormonal disturbances in women
  • Delayed menarche
  • Cessation of menstruation
  • Infertility
  • Osteoporosis
exercise and the menstrual cycle
Exercise and the menstrual cycle
  • Intense training programs can result in amenorrhea and other athletic menstrual cycle irregularities (AMI).
  • There is no compelling scientific evidence that the menstrual cycle has a general effect on athletic performance. Individual athletes may or may not be affected.
the female athlete triad
The female athlete triad
  • Disordered eating
  • Amenorrhea
  • Osteoporosis
sports associated with the female athlete triad
Sports associated with the female athlete triad
  • Sports that emphasize low body weight:
    • gymnastics, figure skating, diving, cheerleading
  • Sports that use weight categories:
    • horse racing, martial arts, wrestling, rowing
what should coaches and trainers look for to prevent development of the female athlete triad
What should coaches and trainers look for to prevent development of the female athlete triad?
  • Early signs of disordered eating include
    • excessive weight loss
    • avoidance of food
    • use of laxatives and diuretics
    • vomiting

For more information, visit The Physician and Sports Medicine: Female Athlete Triad at www.physsportsmed.com/issues/1996/07_96/smith.htm

exercise and pregnancy
Exercise and pregnancy

Recommended program

    • any program performed for about 43 minutes a day, three times a week, with a heart rate of no more than 144 beats per minute
  • Normal pregnancy and childbirth should not affect subsequent performance
methods for counteracting the stigma against weight training for women
Methods for counteracting the stigma against weight training for women
  • Female role models in the weight room
  • Coeducational coaching staffs
  • Coeducational weight rooms
  • Not communicating lesser expectations to female athletes than to male athletes
precautions for pregnant women during strength training
Precautions for pregnant women during strength training
  • Be cautious when performing heavy multi-joint free weight exercise after the first trimester.
  • Pay attention to dress and environment to avoid becoming overheated.
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