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partnership . excellence . growth . Aquaculture and Development. World Bank Workshop Viet Nam January 2008. aquaculture - the issues. aquaculture, food and livelihoods. increases social and environmental resilience ecologically efficient aquatic herbivores and food webs

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aquaculture food and livelihoods
aquaculture, food and livelihoods
  • increases social and environmental resilience
    • ecologically efficient
      • aquatic herbivores and food webs
      • increases ‘crop per drop’
    • relieves pressure on wild fish
    • use economically marginal resources
      • salinized groundwater, borrow pits, irrigation channels
    • helps build resilient livelihoods
      • high value crop
      • mitigate climate change impacts

fish pond

feed

green plants

aquaculture and development4
aquaculture and development

global fish production

  • one of the most innovative and rapidly growing food sectors
    • technical developments
    • market opportunities
    • investment
  • majority of aquatic foods
  • provides opportunities for millions
    • 12 million Asian fish farmers
      • multiplier effects throughout value chain

80

capture

70

60

50

million tonnes

40

30

20

10

culture

0

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

year

source: FAO

aquaculture and economic growth
aquaculture and economic growth

wider economy and other beneficiaries

produce aqua-feeds

transport fry, fish &

feeds

access to

affordable fish

operate a hatchery

produce fish

fish trader

seed

farmer

transporter

retailer

consumer

feed mill

feedstuffs

grow feed

ingredient crops

highly effective means of maximizing

benefits from agriculture for development

slide6

red tide, Inland Sea, Japan

but …
  • some remain poorly informed
    • poor enabling environment
    • lack of investment
  • real concerns
    • can production meet growth in demand?
      • rate of aquaculture growth slowing
    • impacts of expansion, intensification and globalization
      • makes unsustainable demands on the environment
      • perpetuates/aggravates inequity and social exclusion
      • susceptible to climate change, increasing vulnerability
key investment principles
key investment principles
  • identify target groups and establish objectives at program/project outset and develop context-specific interventions
  • adopt a people centered – sustainable livelihoods - approach
  • stakeholders should adopt/modify technologies that both maximize productivity and minimize environmental demands to user capabilities and needs
  • understand, and secure access to, present and future markets
  • understand the roles of support infrastructure and the importance of mainstreaming aquaculture into watershed planning and engage with private/public sectors and civil society to create an enabling environment
usaid dsap bangladesh
USAID DSAP, Bangladesh

Development of Sustainable Aquaculture Project 2000-2005

    • farmer, NGO, public sector, researcher partnership
  • clarify objectives
    • improve resilience of small-scale farmers through better technologies
  • design context-specific investments
    • develop sustainable extension support
    • increase stakeholder technical knowledge
    • improve access to input markets
usaid dsap bangladesh11
USAID DSAP, Bangladesh
  • adopt Sustainable Livelihoods approach that was household-based
    • household capabilities and assets
    • optimize on-farm resource use
    • increase profits and food security
    • empower women
  • tailor technologies
    • Participatory Action Research
    • NGO capacity building (500 staff)
    • learning networks
usaid dsap bangladesh12
USAID DSAP, Bangladesh
  • understand markets
    • strong markets for affordable fish
    • lack of affordable finance, quality seed and feed
  • create enabling environment
    • improved partnering arrangements
    • NGOs facilitated access to finance
    • SME distributed seed and feed production
usaid dsap bangladesh outcomes
USAID DSAP, Bangladesh - outcomes
  • beneficiaries
    • 68,400+ farmers
  • food security
    • >8200 t
  • household-level benefits
    • production – 1542 to 3046 kg ha-1
    • aquaculture income - $1130 to $2200 ha-1
    • total farm income - 13% to 17%
    • fish consumption - 46 to 58 g person-1 day-1
    • empowerment of women
integrated aquaculture iaa malawi
development of IAA, Malawi, since 1988 (various funding agencies, partners, stakeholders)

identify target beneficiaries

low income, smallholder farmers

HIV-AIDS affected households

clarify objectives

improve food security (fish; crop per drop) and resilience of farmers through development and dissemination of technologies

integrated aquaculture (IAA), Malawi
iaa malawi
design context-specific investments

increase stakeholder knowledge

new approaches to extension

optimise on-farm resource use to maximize profits

adopt Sustainable Livelihoods approach

assess farmer capabilities and assets

improve food security, profitability and nutrition

empower farmers (farmer groups)

empower women and children

HIV-AIDS affected households

IAA, Malawi
iaa malawi17
IAA, Malawi
  • tailor technologies
    • Participatory Action Research
      • holistic, whole-farm approach
      • drought-resistant technologies
      • technologies for women and child-headed households
      • intensification of production
  • understand markets
    • present and future
  • create enabling environment
iaa malawi outcomes
IAA, Malawi - outcomes
  • 5000 farmers
  • increase of 22% per annum 1996 – 2001 (40% 2003-2006)

from Dey et al. (2007)

  • improved recycling, sustainability, resilience
slide19

Technological Aspects

Human Capital

Social Inst. Environ

68%

71%

80%

64%

55%

84%

70%

75%

IAA, Malawi – scaling out

from data mapping

from Bayesian network modeling

*KAM Suan Pheng, WorldFish Center, and partners – Universities of Kassel, Hoenheim, Germany; Dept. Fisheries, Malawi

Bangladesh; Chinese Academy of Fisheries Science

river catfish vietnam
river catfish, Vietnam

cage culture of river catfish, Vietnam

  • identify target beneficiaries
    • cage catfish farming SMEs
  • clarify objectives
    • increase production for export
  • design context-specific interventions
    • increase access to seed and feed
    • control disease
    • value chain development
      • food safety (traceability, certification)
      • niche markets
river catfish vietnam22
river catfish, Vietnam
  • adopt Sustainable Livelihoods approach
    • assess capabilities and assets
      • rice farmers, businessmen, pond operators
  • tailor technologies
    • partnerships between government researchers, universities, farmers associations and commercial sector
      • feed, hatchery, disease, processing
    • develop learning networks (farmer to farmer)
      • producer associations
river catfish vietnam23
river catfish, Vietnam
  • markets
    • Europe 2003
      • PPP (BMZ/GTZ, Naturland e.V., Binca Seafood GmBH, An Giang Fisheries Association/SMEs; Thai auditing company)
      • organic catfish standards
  • enabling environment
    • govt.-prioritized export oriented aquaculture for economic growth
      • rice culture reduced by 120,000 ha
      • transition from SOE to SMEs
river catfish vietnam outcomes
river catfish, Vietnam - outcomes
  • 1 million tonnes (>$1 billion)
    • 1.5% GDP
    • growth of 20% p.a. for ten years
    • employs tens of thousands
    • increased food security
  • sustainability
    • markets (US)
    • environmental
      • strong policy environment and implementing institutions

Vietnam’s fishery exports (value) 2006

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