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Understanding e-Bike Propulsion Systems: The Controller Robert Lankin September 23, 2010. Advanced drive train components for electric vehicles. Agenda. What’s a controller? Servicing a controller Selling a controller. What’s a controller?. Electronic module Between battery and motor

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Understanding e-Bike Propulsion Systems:

The Controller

Robert Lankin

September 23, 2010

Advanced drive train components

for electric vehicles


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Agenda

  • What’s a controller?

  • Servicing a controller

  • Selling a controller


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What’s a controller?

  • Electronic module

  • Between battery and motor

  • Regulates motor speed

  • Prevents excessive currents and overheating


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Controller complexity

  • Simplest: on/off switch for DC motor

  • Variable speed DC motor + twist throttle

  • Brushless motor with hall sensors

  • Brushless motor without hall sensors

  • Pedelec torque sensor

  • Smart communication with battery

  • Smart communication with display

  • Built in diagnostics and programming

Increasing Complexity




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More Complex System

Throttle

Brake Switch

BMS

Controller

More Features

More Complex to Troubleshoot

Bottom

Bracket

Sensor

M1

Display


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Agenda

  • What’s a controller?

  • Servicing a controller

  • Selling a controller


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Servicing a controller

  • e-bike doesn’t go at all

  • e-bike doesn’t go as far or fast as it used to

  • e-bike acts or sounds strange


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Servicing a controller

  • e-bike doesn’t go at all

    • Check power to controller (battery, fuse, switch, wiring)

    • Burnt smell?

    • Check controller LED for error codes (read manual!)

    • Check throttle and brake signals at controller

    • Check motor hall signals (wet?)

    • Spin hub motor backwards, check for AC voltages – zero voltage means failed wiring somewhere

  • e-bike doesn’t go as far or fast as it used to

  • e-bike acts or sounds strange


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Servicing a controller

  • e-bike doesn’t go at all

  • e-bike doesn’t go as far or fast as it used to

    • Weak battery or defective charger

    • Low tire pressure

    • Mechanical friction (bearings, alignment, brakes)

    • Intermittent operation may be overheating due to loads, friction, or defective temperature sensor

  • e-bike acts or sounds strange


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Servicing a controller

  • e-bike doesn’t go at all

  • e-bike doesn’t go as far or fast as it used to

  • e-bike acts or sounds strange

    • Pulsations or dead zones may be bad hall sensor, wet hall sensor, or hall sensor wiring problem

    • Erratic forward motion may be faulty or lose connectors

    • Conversion kits may have mechanical fatigue in axle, spokes, rear sprocket


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Agenda

  • What’s a controller?

  • Servicing a controller

  • Selling a controller


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Selling a controller

  • Power rating (250W vs. 500W vs. 750W)

    • Hill climbing, acceleration, head wind, loads

    • Compare bikes, compare routes

  • Voltage rating (24V vs. 36V vs. 48V)

    • Higher voltage typically with higher power

  • Throttle vs. pedelec

    • Inexperienced vs. experienced riders

  • Feel: smooth and intuitive vs. hesitations

    • Ride and compare different systems


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Selling a controller

  • Features

    • Sensorless – fewer service issues, but may need a running start

    • Regenerative braking – improved range, perhaps improved braking feel

    • Reliability, durability, weather resistance

    • Integrated diagnostics



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