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8. INTERIOR FINISHES FOR WOOD LIGHT FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 8 .1 INTERIOR FINISHING OPERATIONS FOR WOOD LIGHT FRAME CONSTRUCTIONS - OVERVIEW. 8.1 INTERIOR FINISHING OPERATIONS FOR WOOD LIGHT FRAME CONSTRUCTION - OVERVIEW 8.2 INTERIOR FINISHING OPERATIONS 8.3 THERMAL INSULATIONS AND VAPOR RETARDERS

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8. INTERIOR FINISHES FOR WOOD LIGHT FRAME CONSTRUCTION

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8 interior finishes for wood light frame construction l.jpg

8. INTERIOR FINISHES FOR WOOD LIGHT FRAME CONSTRUCTION


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8.1 INTERIOR FINISHING OPERATIONS FOR WOOD LIGHT FRAME CONSTRUCTIONS - OVERVIEW

  • 8.1 INTERIOR FINISHING OPERATIONS FOR WOOD LIGHT FRAME CONSTRUCTION - OVERVIEW

  • 8.2 INTERIOR FINISHING OPERATIONS

  • 8.3 THERMAL INSULATIONS AND VAPOR RETARDERS

  • 8.4 DESIGN OF FINISH STAIRS


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Interior Construction Sequence

  • Interior Partition Framing

  • Rough-in (& Equipment)

  • Code Compliance Inspection

  • Thermal Insulation & Vapor Retarder

  • Building Inspection

  • Ceiling & Wall Materials

  • Interior Millwork, Interior Finishes

  • MPE Fixtures, Devices, Trim, & Appliances


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Waste/Vent Piping

WC Rough-in

Copper Water Piping (joints)

Why not PVC?

Pipe Insulation


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Vent Pipe

Plumbing

Why “Stack” Plumbing Fixtures??


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Insulated “Flex” Duct


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Insulation

Sprinkler Pipe

Rare in Residential Construction

WHY?

Flexible Duct

Duct Anchorage


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Round Duct


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Square Ductwork


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Electrical Roughin


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Electrical roughin using flexible metal conduits


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Nail Protectors and Sealant to prevent smoke migration


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8.2 INTERIOR FINISHING OPERATIONS

  • After the framing carpenters and roofers finish the exterior roofing and siding of the platform frame building, they are joined by a number of building trade persons to complete the building on the inside

  • Plumbers begin the installation of piping - First the drain-waste-vent (DWV) pipes (larger diameter pipe) are installed since they need to have the right-of way - Second the small supply pipes, that bring hot and cold water; and gas pipes are laid - If the building is to have a hot water system, the plumbers put the boiler and instal the heating pipes and convectors - Then sheet metal workers instal the furnace and ductwork for central warm-air heating and/or air conditioning

  • The electricians complete the wiring of the building

  • After this “rough” installation, inspectors from the municipal building department check each of the installed systems for compliance with the plumbing, electrical and sheet metal codes


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8.2 INTERIOR FINISHING OPERATIONS(Cont’d)

  • Thereafter, connections are made to the external sources of water, gas, electricity and communication services, and to a means of sewage disposal (to a main sewer or a septic tank and a leaching field)

  • At this point, the general building inspector of the municipality is called to examine the framing, exterior finishing and insulation for compliance to the code provisions. Any deficiency found at this stage must be corrected immediately before proceeding further.

  • The second phase of interior finish operations start

  • The elaborate tangle of ‘framing members, ducts, pipes, wires and insulation’ rapidly disappears behind the finish wall and ceiling materials

  • The interior millwork - doors, finish stairs, railings, cabinets, shelves, closet interiors , and door and window casings - is installed by finish carpenters

  • Finish flooring materials are installed as late as possible to save them from damage by the passing armies of workers

  • Finish carpenters then install the baseboards


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8.2 INTERIOR FINISHING OPERATIONS(Cont’d)

  • Painters prime, paint, stain, varnish and paper the interior

  • Family the plumbers, electricians, and sheet metal workers return briefly to install the plumbing fixtures, electrical receptacles, switches, light fixtures, air grills and registers

  • A final round of inspection are carried out to remedy the lingering defects

  • Now the building is ready for occupancy


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8.3 THERMAL INSULATION AND VAPOR RETARDER

  • Thermal insulation keeps a building cooler in summer and warmer in winter by retarding the passage of heat through the exterior surfaces of the building - Keeps the occupants of the building more comfortable by moderating the temperatures of the interior surfaces of the building and reducing convective drafts - Reduces the energy consumption of the building for heating and cooling, to a fraction of what it would be without insulation

  • Thermal insulation is any material added to a building assembly, for the purpose of slowing thee conduction of heat through the assembly


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Thermal Insulation

  • Purpose

  • Materials

  • Installation

  • R-Values


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Vapor Retarder

Outside Wall


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8.3 THERMAL INSULATION AND VAPOR RETARDER(Cont’d)

  • 8.3.1 Types of thermally insulating materials: Glass fiber batts (blankets) are the most popular type of insulation for wall cavities in new construction - Widely used in attic and roof insulation

  • (i) Batt or blanket - Glass/rock wool - R value 3.2-3.7 - Incombustible

  • (ii) High density batt - Glass wool - R value 4.3 - Incombustible

  • (iii) Loose fill - Glass/rock wool - R value 2.5-3.5 - Incombustible

  • (iv) Loose fibers with binders - Treated cellulose, glass wool - R value 3.1-4.0 -Incombustible

  • (v) Foamed-in-place - Polyurethane - R value 5-7 - Combustible

  • (vi) Foamed-in-place - Polyicynene - R value 3.6-4.0 - Combustible but self-extinguishing

  • (vii) Rigid board - Polystyrene foam- R value 4-5 - Combustible, but self-extinguishing

  • (viii) Rigid board - glass fiber - R value 3.5 - Incombustible

  • (ix) Rigid board - Cane fiber - R value 2.5 - Combustible - Low cost


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8.3 THERMAL INSULATION AND VAPOR RETARDER(Cont’d)

  • 8.3.2 Increasing Levels of Thermal Insulation:Thicker walls, insulating sheathing materials and various schemes have been developed during the past twenty-five years - Insulation levels can be increased from R12 of a normal stud wall by using either 2x6 framing and thicker batt insulation or 2x4 framing with plastic foam sheathing in combination with batt insulation - Treated wood foundations can also be insulated to high R-values - Ceiling insulation batts usually must be compressed to fit them into the diminished space under the roof sheathing

  • 8.3.3 Radiant Barriers:In warmer regions radiant barriers are being increasingly used to reduce flow of solar heat into the building - These are thin sheets or panels faced with a bright metal foil that reflects infrared radiation; they are installed over the rafters or studs and beneath the sheathing - Effective only if the bright surface of the barrier faces a ventilated airspace. Solar heat that has passed through the outer skin of building is removed by convection; also these barriers are configured with folds that would automatically provide the ventilated airspace - Radiant barriers are used in along with conventional insulating materials to achieve the desired overall thermal performance


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8.3 THERMAL INSULATION AND VAPOR RETARDER(Cont’d)

  • 8.3.4 Vapor Retarders:Vapor retarder is a membrane of metal foil, plastic, or treated paper placed on the warm side of the thermal insulation to prevent water vapor from entering the insulation and condensing into liquid; its role increases in importance as the thermal insulation levels increase - Many batt insulation materials are furnished with a vapor retarder layer of treated paper or aluminum foil already attached - Designers in cold climate prefer to use unfaced batts and apply a separate vapor retarder of polyethylene sheet, since a vapor retarder attached to batts has a seam at each stud that can leak significant quantities of air and vapor

  • 8.3.5 Air Infiltration and Ventilation: Much attention is given to reducing the air infiltration between the indoors and outdoors, since leakage often accounts for the major portion of the fuel burned to heat the building in winter - This trend has resulted in houses and apartments that exchange so little air with the outside leading to accumulation of moisture, odors and chemical pollutants indoors - Hence air-to-air heat exchangers have been installed to recover the heat from the exhausted air from the building


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Vapor Retarders

  • Purpose

  • Materials

  • Installation


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8.3 THERMAL INSULATION AND VAPOR RETARDER(Cont’d)

  • 8.3.6 Airtight Drywall Approach (ADA): As an alternative to vapor retarders, airtight drywall approach has been used in buildings - It is based on the assumption that most condensation problems are caused by the air leaking out from the interior of the building to outside - Hence if all the interior joints in the gypsum (drywall) board is sealed by using compressible foam gaskets or sealants then air leakage is eliminated - In addition to providing good control of water vapor, ADA also reduces heat losses that occur because of air infiltration from the outside


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  • Radiant Barriers

    • Used to reduce the flow of solar heat

    • Thin sheets of panels faced with metal foil

    • Reflects infrared radiation

  • Airtight Drywall Approach

    • Reduce / eliminate air infiltration

    • Effect:

      • Control the flow of water vapor

      • Reduce heat loss (gain) because of air infiltration


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Gypsum Drywall - stacked


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Joint Reinforcing Tape

Corner bead

Joint Tape Applied

Joint Compound


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Applying Joint Compound


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Wall & Ceiling Finish

  • Plaster

  • Gypsum Drywall

  • Veneer Plaster


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Millwork & Finish Carpentry

  • Window Casings

  • Baseboards

  • Cabinets


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Flooring & Hard Tiles

  • Floor Preparation

  • Flooring Materials

  • Wall Materials


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Floor Underlayment

  • Purpose:

    • Level Floor

    • Increase Fire Resistance

    • Reduce Sound Transmission

  • Materials

    • Poured Gypsum

    • Lightweight Concrete


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Flooring & Hard Tiles

  • Floor Preparation

  • Flooring Materials

  • Wall Materials


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Finish FlooringFunctions & Considerations

  • Functions:

    • Visual

    • Acoustics

    • Wearing Surface

  • Considerations

    • Life / durability

    • Skid resistance

    • Sanitation

    • Noise

    • Fire (resistance, combustibility)


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Stone Flooring

  • Types

    • Marble

    • Granite

    • Slate

    • Sandstone, …

  • Installation

    • Setting Bed

    • Grouted joints


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Marble Flooring


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Quarry Tile

  • Fired Clay tiles

  • Multiple shapes/sizes

  • Installation

    • Setting Bed (typical)

    • Thin Set

    • Grout Joints


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Ceramic Tile

  • Fired Clay - Typ. Smaller than Quarry tile

  • Often Glazed Finish

  • Floors & Walls

  • Multiple sizes & colors


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Wood Flooring

  • Materials

    • white & red oak, pecan, maple, pine, ….

  • Types

    • Wood Strip Flooring - blind nailed

    • “Square edge” - fasteners visible (or filled)

    • Parquet

  • Pre-finished or finished in-place (except parquet)


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Resilient Flooring

  • Vinyl Composition

  • Thin (1/8”), rolls or tiles (VCT)

    • Will show substrate irregularities

  • Multiple colors & patterns

  • Low cost, moderate durability

  • Installation - glued


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MPE Fixtures, Devices & Trim

  • Plumbing Fixtures

  • Electrical Fixtures, Devices & Trim

  • HVAC Trim


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Fire Protection Methods

  • Codes Limit Size based upon Structural Materials

  • Interior Fire Construction

    • Rated Corridors & Exits

    • Firewalls / Building Partitioning

  • Detect Fire / Smoke

    • Self-Contained / Battery Powered - Alert Occupants

    • Hard-Wired - Alert Occupants &

      • Activate Life Safety Systems (HVAC) - Zones

      • Alarms @ Control Panel & Fire Department


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Fire Protection Methods continued

  • Detect / Extinguish Fire - Sprinkler Systems

    Components (rare in single family homes)

    • Distribution of Water @ appropriate pressures

      • Piping (vertical and horizontal)

      • Booster pumps (high rise)

    • Dispense water @ the appropriate time

      • Sprinkler

    • Activate Life Safety & notify (flow valves/switches)


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8.4 DESIGN OF FINISH STAIRS

  • 8.4.1 Finish stairsare either constructed in place or shop built; site built stairs tend to be fitted more closely to the walls - Stair treads are usually made of wear-resistant hardwoods like oak and maple, whereas the risers and stringers are made of any reasonable hardwood like oak, maple or Douglas fir

  • 8.4.2 Proportioning of Stairs:BOCA National Building Code specifies: (a) Stairs within a residence to have a minimum width of 36”, maximum riser height of 7 3/4”, minimum tread width of 10” and a minimum headroom of 6’8”; (b) Nonresidential stair with a occupancy load of 50 persons or fewer to have a minimum width of 36”, maximum riser height of 7”, minimum tread depth of 11” and minimum headroom of 6’8”; and (c) Nonresidential stair, with a occupancy load greater than 50 persons:Minimum width of 44”, maximum height of 7”, minimum tread depth of 11” and a minimum headroom of 6’8”

  • 8.4.3 The Design Formula is (2R + T) = 25” for indoors and (2R + T) = 26 or 27” for outdoors


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