Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer
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Image Quilting for Texture Synthesis and Transfer. Alexei A. Efros (UC Berkeley) William T. Freeman (MERL) Siggraph01 ’. About author?. Alexei A. Efros Assistant Professor Computer Science Department & The Robotics Institute School of Computer Science

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Image Quilting for Texture Synthesis and Transfer

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Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer

Image Quilting for Texture Synthesis and Transfer

Alexei A. Efros (UC Berkeley)

William T. Freeman (MERL)

Siggraph01’


About author

About author?

  • Alexei A. Efros

  • Assistant Professor

  • Computer Science Department

  • & The Robotics Institute

  • School of Computer Science

  • Carnegie Mellon University

  • From St. Petersburg, Russia

  • Got PhD from UC Berkeley in 2003

  • Then a year as a Visiting Research Fellow in Visual

  • Geometry Group of Oxford

  • Joined in CSD and RI in autumn of 2004

  • Computer graphics & computer vision


About author1

About author?

  • William T. Freeman

  • Professor of Electrical Engineering &

  • Computer Science at the

  • Artificial Intelligence

  • Laboratory at MIT(September, 2001)

  • Received a BS in physics and MS in electrical

  • engineering from Stanford (1979), and an MS

  • in applied physics from Cornell(1981)

  • Got his PhD in 1992 from the MIT

  • Worked at Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs (1992 – 2001,

  • Cambridge)

  • Computer vision


Quilting transfer

+

=

Quilting? Transfer?


Image vs texture

Image vs. Texture


Example based texture synthesis

Example-based Texture Synthesis

Input Example


The goal of texture synthesis

input image

SYNTHESIS

True (infinite) texture

generated image

The Goal of Texture Synthesis

Same in perceptual sense


The challenge

The Challenge

  • Texture analysis: how to capture the essence of texture?

  • Need to model the whole spectrum: from repeated to stochastic texture

Repeated

Stochastic

Both?


Related work

Related Work

  • Local region-growing method

  • -Pixel-based

  • -Patch-based

  • Global optimization-based method

  • Heeger and Bergen sig95,Pyramid-based texture synthesis

  • Paget and Longstaff IEEE Tran… 98,Texture synthesis via a noncausal nonparametric multiscale markov random field

  • …..

  • Physical Simulation et al


Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer

B1

B1

B2

B2

Neighboring blocks

constrained by overlap

Minimal error

boundary cut

block

Input texture

B1

B2

Random placement

of blocks


Minimum error boundary cut

2

_

=

overlap error

min. error boundary

Minimum Error Boundary Cut

overlapping blocks

vertical boundary


Minimum error boundary cut1

Minimum Error Boundary Cut


The image quilting algorithm

The Image Quilting Algorithm

  • Pick size of block and size of overlap

  • Synthesize blocks in raster order

  • Search input texture for block that satisfies overlap constraints (above and left)

    • Easy to optimize using NN search [Liang et.al., ’01]

  • Paste new block into resulting texture

    • Compute minimal error boundary cut


Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer

Synthesis Results


Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer

Synthesis Results


Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer

Synthesis Results


Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer

Synthesis Results


Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer

Synthesis Results


Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer

Synthesis Results


Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer

Portilla & Simoncelli

Xu, Guo & Shum

input image

Wei & Levoy

Image Quilting


Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer

Portilla & Simoncelli

Xu, Guo & Shum

input image

Wei & Levoy

Image Quilting


Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer

Portilla & Simoncelli

Xu, Guo & Shum

input image

Wei & Levoy

Image Quilting


Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer

Failures


Image quilting vs graph cut

Image Quilting vs. Graph Cut

Input

Image Quilting

Graph Cut (siggraph 03’)


Texture transfer

Luminance Constraint

+

Texture Transfer


Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer

parmesan

+

=

rice

+

=


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • No multi-scale, no one-pixel-at-a-time!

  • fast and very simple

  • Improved stability

  • Results are not bad


Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer

Thanks a lot!

Happy New Year!


Pixel based methods

Pixel-based Methods

  • Compare local causal neighbourhoods

  • Efros and Leung (ICCV ’99)Wei and Levoy (Siggraph 2000)Ashikhmin (I3D 2001)

Input

Output


Patch based methods

Patch-based Methods

  • Copy patches of pixels rather than single pixels

    Chaos Mosaic, Xu et al, 1997

    Patch-Based Sampling, Liang et al(ACM 2001)

    Image Quilting, Efros and Williams(Siggraph 2001)


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