1 / 44

Reproduction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Reproduction. Topics in Reproduction. (Review) : Reproductive organs. What does what? Fertilisation : The science The female menstrual cycle Birth control in males and females: the pros and cons The placenta Breastfeeding . Questions….For us to discuss on Monday….

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Reproduction' - sheri

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Topics in reproduction
Topics in Reproduction

  • (Review) : Reproductive organs. What does what?

  • Fertilisation: The science

  • The female menstrual cycle

  • Birth control in males and females: the pros and cons

  • The placenta

  • Breastfeeding

Questions for us to discuss on monday
Questions….For us to discuss on Monday…

  • What is the future for male contraception – way more than condoms

  • What are the risks of getting pregnant if you don’t use birth control – on how many days of her cycle can a woman get pregnant?

  • What preciselydoes drinking alcohol and smoking during pregnancy do to a developing baby?

  • What are the pros and cons of breastfeeding compared with bottle feeding?

Reproductive organs what does what
Reproductive organs. What does what?

Check the links on the Blog to review anatomy and function!

Asexual reproduction binary fission
Asexual reproduction: Binary Fission

  • animation of binary fission

Asexual reproduction budding
Asexual Reproduction: Budding

Seen in Hydra and other species…

Why go for sexual rather than asexual reproduction
Why go for sexual rather than asexual reproduction?

Links to explain…

  • From the Natural history museum

  • A simple explanation

The basic vocabulary of sexual reproduction
The basic vocabulary of sexual reproduction

  • Gametes (sex cells) are produced by gonads (sex organs – testes and ovaries)

  • Gametes are produced through meiosis (reduction division – and have the haploid (n) number of chromosomes

  • Female gametes are eggs (large, stationary)

  • Male gametes are sperm (small, motile)

  • Gametes join together at fertilisation to produce a zygote (diploid number of chromosomes, 2n)

  • After fertilisation, the zygote grows by mitosis, with the full (2n) chromosome set in every cell

Comparing the ovum and the sperm
Comparing the ovum and the sperm

The egg is the largest cell, while the sperm is the smallest in the human body

Fertilisation and embryonic growth
Fertilisation and embryonic growth

Testosterone effects
Testosterone effects influence of testosterone

Romantic relationships and testosterone
Romantic relationships and testosterone… influence of testosterone

According to wikipedia…

  • Falling in love decreases testosterone in men but increases it in women

  • Testosterone ‘returns to normal’ after the honeymoon period

  • Fatherhood decreases testosterone levels

  • ‘competition’ affects testosterone levels

Sperm are delicate
Sperm are delicate… influence of testosterone

  • Sensitive to heat

  • Sensitive to environmental oestrogens (Phyto-oestrogens in plants e.g. SOY, Beer), chemicals

  • Link - environmental oestrogens 'wreck' sperm...

Female egg production produced in the ovaries
Female egg production: Produced in the ovaries… influence of testosterone

  • Eggs are produced pre-birth

  • Eggs are arrested in prophase I of meiosis until puberty

  • From puberty until the menopause, one egg will be produced each menstrual cycle under hormonal control (oestrogen from the overies, FSH and LH from the pituitary gland)

  • The egg is the largest cell in the body

Female menstrual cycle
Female menstrual cycle influence of testosterone

  • An animated version…

  • …and a detailed diagram

  • …and a movie!

Hormones of the menstrual cycle
Hormones of the menstrual cycle influence of testosterone

Oral contraceptives interfere with the normal menstrual cycle
Oral contraceptives interfere with the normal menstrual cycle

  • Pills exploit feedback controls over hormone secretion

  • They contain combinations of oestrogen and progesterone OR progesterone only

  • 100% effective if used properly

Combination pill
Combination pill cycle

  • They contain combinations of oestrogenand progesterone

  • You take the hormone pills for 7 days, and then sugar pills for 7 days, long enough for menstruation to occur but not long enough for ova to develop

  • Combination pills can be monophasic, biphasic or triphasic(dose increasing in 1 or 2 stages)

M ini pill
cycleMini pill’

  • Low-dose progesterone only – for 28 days

  • Ovulation occurs

  • Uterus is not favourable for implantation

  • Less reliable

  • Safer for older women, breastfeeding women

Side effects of the pill
Side effects of the pill… cycle

  • Sore boobs

  • Mood swings

  • Headaches

  • Can affect blood pressure

  • No protection aginst STI’s

Alternatives to the pill for women contraceptive patch
Alternatives to the pill for women: cyclecontraceptive patch

Alternatives to the pill contraceptive ring
Alternatives to the pill: contraceptive ring cycle

  • Hormones (oestrogen, progesterone) released into the vagina

  • Lower doses of hormones are needed

  • Just as reliable as the pill

  • Lower hormone doses so more reliable…

Condoms cycle

Male Condom –

The male condom is the only method of contraception boys can use. It's really just a rubber tube. It's closed at one end like the finger of a glove so that when a boy puts it over his penis it stops the sperm going inside a girl's body

Female Condom cycle

Female Condom

The female condom is a fairly new barrier method. It is not as widely available as the male condom and it is more expensive

IUD or Coil cycle

‘The IUD’ – which stands for ‘intra-uterine device.’

Most IUDs are T-shaped. They’re made of plastic and copper, sometimes with a little silver inside.

They prevent your partner’s sperms from getting through your womb and into your tubes

Diaphragm and cap cycle

Diaphragms and caps fit inside the vagina and cover the cervix (entrance to the womb). They are barrier methods of contraception and stop sperm meeting an egg.

Spermicide cycle


come in several different forms: cream, gel and foam. Most spermicides contain nonoxynol-9, a chemical that kills sperm.

Spermicides can be used alone but are more effective when used with another method of birth control, such as a condom or diaphragm.

Implant cycle

Contraceptive Implant - The contraceptive implant is a small, flexible tube that's inserted under the skin in the upper arm. It slowly releases a hormone called progestogen and works for three years.

Injection cycle

Contraceptive Injection

The contraceptive injection contains a hormone called progestogen and is a long-term method of contraception.

It's injected into a muscle and the hormone is released very slowly into the body.

Pregnancy! cycle

Placenta cycle

  • Baby is called a foetusfrom 8 w, when embryo has all of its major structures

  • Developing baby is totally dependent on mother for nutrients, oxygen and elimination of wastes

  • The placentais the specialised organ that performs this role

  • Placenta also produces hormones to help maintain pregnancy

  • placenta is joined to foetus by the umbilical cord

Structure of the placenta
Structure of the placenta cycle

  • Note that foetal blood and maternal blood do not mix

  • Oxygen and nutrients from the mother diffuse into the capillaries of the chorionic villae

  • Carbon dioxide and other wastes leave the foetus through the umbilical arteries, pass into the capillaries of the villi and out into the maternal blood

What does the placenta deliver to the baby? cycle

  • Vitamins

  • Oxygen

  • Triglycerides

  • Hormones

  • Minerals

  • Protein

  • Water

  • Drugs

What does the placenta remove from the baby?

  • Carbon dioxide

  • Waste products of metabolism

  • Water

  • Urea

Figure 5 cycle

A microscope photograph of a cross-section of one of the smallest branches (called a villus) of a tree-like placental cotyledon at term. Mother’s red blood cells surround the villus, while the baby’s red blood cells are inside large capillaries within the villus. The blood of the mother and the blood of the baby are everywhere separated by the syncytial trophoblast, which is a seamless layer comprising a single cell.