Minerals part ii
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MINERALS PART II. Agenda. Minerals Review Formation Sources Deposition Locations Acquisition - Mining Processing Uses Field Trips. Mineral Review. Definition (4 Parts) Properties Physical Chemical Characteristic/Diagnostic Groups. Mineral Formation. Mineral Formation.

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MINERALS PART II

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Minerals part ii

MINERALSPART II


Agenda

Agenda

  • Minerals

    • Review

    • Formation

    • Sources

    • Deposition

    • Locations

    • Acquisition - Mining

    • Processing

    • Uses

    • Field Trips


Mineral review

Mineral Review

  • Definition (4 Parts)

  • Properties

    • Physical

    • Chemical

    • Characteristic/Diagnostic

  • Groups


Mineral formation

Mineral Formation


Mineral formation1

Mineral Formation

  • Mineral Paragenesis: Process of mineral formation and deposition.

    • Bowens Reaction Series

      • Continuous – (Feldspars)

      • Discontinuous


Bowen s reaction series

Bowen’s Reaction Series

  • 2 Groups

    • Continuous Series

    • Discontinuous Series

  • New Minerals formed due to changes in temperature and pressure.


F04 26 pg62

f04_26_pg62

BOWENS REACTION SERIES

f04_26_pg62


T04 03 pg51

t04_03_pg51

t04_03_pg51


2 groups of silicate minerals

2 Groups of Silicate Minerals

  • Felsic Minerals

    • Content: Silicon, Oxygen, Aluminum, Potassium, Sodium

    • Lighter Color

    • Greater Density

    • Low Temperature Formation

  • Mafic Minerals

    • Content: Iron, Magnesium, Calcium (Feromag)

    • Darker in Color

    • Smaller Density

    • High Temperature Formation


Sources of minerals

Sources of Minerals


Sources of minerals1

Sources of Minerals

  • 3 Sources of Minerals

    • Juvenile Magma: Molten material below the surface (Basaltic Composition).

    • Remelted Crustal Material: (Granitic Composition)

    • Hydrothermal Fluids: Circulation of surface waters remove metals from host rocks and redeposit them.


Mineral deposition

Mineral Deposition


Mineral deposition1

Mineral Deposition

  • Deposition Process

    • Movement of Molten Material or hydrothermal fluids.

    • Concentration and Deposition of Mineral Deposits


Movement of ore forming fluids

Movement of Ore-Forming Fluids

  • Causes of movement:

    • High vapor pressures of volatile-rich fluids.

    • Pressures from mountain-building forces.

    • Joints, faults, volcanic tubes channeling the fluids.


Concentration of mineral deposits

Concentration of Mineral Deposits

  • Direct Deposit - Minerals deposited in cavities and cracks near the source of the molten material.

  • Rock Replacement - Some types of rocks are susceptible to replacement by minerals – limestone & dolomite.

  • Oxidation & Secondary Enrichment – Changes due to exposure to the atmosphere and weathering processes.


Mineral locations

Mineral Locations


Mineral deposit locations

Mineral Deposit Locations

  • http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1294/


Mineral acquisition mining

Mineral Acquisition“Mining”


Mineral acquisition

Mineral Acquisition

  • Ore: Rock containing economically mineable minerals.

  • Mineral deposits are not uniformly distributed in the Earth’s crust nor did they all form at the same time.

  • In certain regions, conditions were favorable for the concentration of useful minerals.

  • There regions are termed mineralogenetic provinces and they contain broadly similar types of deposits, or deposits with different mineral assemblages that appear to be genetically related.


Mineral acquisition1

Mineral Acquisition

  • Preliminary Activities

    • Discovery of ore body.

    • Size estimation of ore body.

    • Define accessibility of ore body.

    • Define methods for removing ore body.

    • Define financial reward of ore body.

      • Profit

      • Technical Requirements

      • Risks/Liabilities


Mineral acquisition2

Mineral Acquisition

  • Ore Acquisition

    • Ore Type

      • Placer Deposit

      • Lode Deposit

    • Surface

      • Open-pit mining

      • Strip Mining

    • Subsurface

      • Tunnels/Shafts

      • Leaching


Mineral processing

Mineral Processing


Mineral processing1

Mineral Processing

  • Crush Material

  • Separate Ore from Waste (Tailings)

  • Concentrate Ores

    • Smelting (Melting)

    • Electrolytic Processing

    • Chemical Additions

    • Leaching

  • Ship processed minerals to manufacturers


Mineral uses

Mineral Uses


Mineral uses1

Mineral Uses

  • Precious Metals and stones

  • Electronics

  • Building Materials

  • Tools

  • Insulators

  • Conductors


Mineral uses2

Mineral Uses

  • http//www.nwma.org/education/Uses%20for%20Minerals.htm

  • http//www.scienceviews.com/geology/minerals.html

  • http//www.mii.org/commonminerals.php

  • http//webmineral.com/Alphabetical_Listing.shtml

  • http//www.webmineral.com/


Mineral field trips

Mineral Field Trips


Mineral field trips1

Information Sources

USGS

CORP ENGINEERS

Universities

Mining Companies

Parks & Recreation

Locations

Mines

Quarries

Road Cuts

Rivers/Beaches/Creeks

Mountains

Equipment/Materials

Hammer/Pick/Shovel/Chisel

Protective Goggles

Maps

Collecting Bags

Storage Containers

Permits/Schedules

Notebook

Hand Lens

Mineral ID Manuel

Camera

Compass

Mineral Field Trips


Mineral field trips2

Mineral Field Trips

  • http://www.minerals.net/resource/finding.htm


The end

THE END


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