An introduction to grinding machine control systems
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An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems. John Moruzzi AMTReL. Director of Studies: Dr Michael Morgan. Personal Introduction . John Moruzzi BSc Electrical Engineering & ElectronicsUniversity of Leeds MSC Computational & Statistical Modelling University of Liverpool

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An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems

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An introduction to grinding machine control systems

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems

John Moruzzi

AMTReL

Director of Studies: Dr Michael Morgan

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Personal introduction

Personal Introduction

John Moruzzi

BSc Electrical Engineering & ElectronicsUniversity of Leeds

MSC Computational & Statistical Modelling University of Liverpool

Known AMTReL since early 90’s

Software engineeringAerospace / Avionics

Manufacturing / Machine ToolsOMR / OCR Applications

Electrical installationCommercial / Industrial

Technical sales / support Grinding machine process control

(Balance Systems)

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Amtrel jones shipman 1300x

AMTReLJones & Shipman 1300X

  • Universal grinding machine

  • External and Internal wheelheads

  • SAMM control (Servo Assisted Manual Machine)

  • Prototype machine based on Format 15 model

  • Built circa 1994, modified 2001

  • Closed control system – Industrial PC / MS-DOS

Used for previous AMTReL projects/PhD’s

Adaptive control (Y Chen)

Open CNC Interface (C Statham)

High speed Internal grinding

Industry co-operations (Timken, Lucas, …)

Fluid delivery methods, nozzle design

AE monitoring

Dressing tool control (fluid coupling)

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Objectives

Objectives

Machine

Re-commission hardware

Move axes

Replace workhead drive

Modifications to wiring

Disable hardware limitations

Remove original control panel

Implement simplified control panel

Interface external devices

Control system

Initial “desktop” PC control :

ISA bus motion control card

ISA bus Digital I/O card

Standard mouse / keyboard / monitor

Initial software

Windows 2000 (XP), Visual Basic

Programming familiarity

Axis configuration

Axis movements

Simple grinding cycles

Simple cycle programming

Simple IO features

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Machine tool axes

Machine Tool Axes

Cylindrical (Universal) grinding machine

Z axis - horizontal (table)

positioning of workpiece for grinding

X axis - radial (wheelfeed / infeed)

application of wheel for grinding

C axis - workpiece rotation (workhead)

fixed between headstock and tailstock

Surface grinding machine

X axis - horizontal (table)

oscillation of workpiece for grinding

Y axis - vertical (“downfeed”)

application of wheel for grinding

Z axis - workpiece incremental translation (saddle)

clamped to table

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Axis positioning and control

Axis positioning and control

Position measurement

Encoder

linear scale or rotary

2 quadraturepulsetrains

Marker / Zero pulse

distance moved and direction

Configuration

Scaling (pulses / rev, pulses / mm)

Thread pitch

Limits

Axis overtravel switches / signals (+ve, –ve)

Axis movement

Motion control hardware

Position target, move speed

Position feedback (speed)

Speed reference signal

Servo drive

Speed reference input (DC +/- 10V)

Motor power output (DC / AC)

Scaling, Trim, Offsets

Servo motor

Resolver feedback (speed)

Ballscrew

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Wheelspeed and workspeed

Wheelspeed and Workspeed

Wheelspeed

Rotational speed (RPM)Surface speed (m/sec)

Fixed on simple machines , can be changed with gearing / pulleys

Variable on more sophisticated machines, can be adjusted for “constant speed” machining

Workspeed

Rotational speed (RPM)Surface speed (m/sec)

Variable on most grinding machines

Controlled by operator / program

Open-loop motor drive control

N.B. Relationship between wheel speed and workpiece speed crucial to the grinding process

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Common grinding cycles

Common grinding cycles

DressingSingle point “diamond” dressing:

Wheel rotating (surface speed vc )

Wheel traverses past diamond tip (crossfeed velocity vf)

Wheel infeeds an increment (infeed amount ad)

Repeat until wheel surface fully dressed

Plunge grindingWorkpiece / table positioned relative to wheel

Wheel and workpiece rotating (vc and vw)

Wheel infeed at Rapid speed to start position (dia)

Wheel infeed at Coarse feed to Fine Feed start position (dia)

Wheel infeed at Fine feed to Final Size position (dia)

Sparkout or Dwell with no infeed

Traverse grindingWorkpiece / table set to oscillate across wheel to wheel

Wheel and workpiece rotating (vc and vw)

Wheel infeed by Rapid increments to start position (dia)

Wheel infeed by Coarse increments to Fine Feed start position (dia)

Wheel infeed at Fine feed to Final Size position (dia)

Sparkout passes of wheel with no infeed

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Cycle programming 1

Cycle programming - 1

CNC part-programming

Sequence of instruction lines or “blocks”

M-codes functional commands

G-codes movement commands

Canned cyclescomplex operations

(machine specific)

M-codes

M02End of Program

M03Spindle on (CW rotation)

M05Spindle Stop

M07Coolant on (flood)

M09Coolant off

G-codes

G00Rapid positioning

G01Linear interpolation

G28Return to home position

Canned cycles (J & S Series 10)

G86Traverse Grinding

G88 Plunge Grinding

G88X25.4 Z50.000 D0.50A0.010 B0.02 C0.0005 P25.5 J25.410 S10 Q0

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Cycle programming 2

Cycle programming - 2

Guided / Teaching processManually move to position, save values Enter / adjust values (keypad, buttons)

Plunge cycle

Go to Z start pos: <Enter>

Go to X size pos: <Enter>

Go to X start pos: <Enter>

Go to X finefeed pos: <Enter>

Program X coarse feedrate<Enter>

Program X fine feedrate<Enter>

Program Sparkout time<Enter>

Traverse cycle

Go to Z right pos: <Enter>

Go to Z left pos: <Enter>

Go to X size pos: <Enter>

Go to X start pos: <Enter>

Go to X finefeed pos: <Enter>

Program X coarse increment<Enter>

Program X fine increment<Enter>

Program sparkout passes<Enter>

Set Z traverse speed

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Architecture of a cnc system

Architecture of a CNC system

Main Control

ExecutorScheduling, program execution, monitoring

IO routines HMI, programming, Digital, Bus

Safety Machine logic

Cycle managementSequencing, monitoring

Motion ControlAxis movements, motors

Process optimisation

In-process GaugingDiameter, Shoulder

Touch DetectionAE, Power

Wheel balancingAuto / Manual

Probing

Adaptive / Intelligent Control

Adaptive strategy Parameter modification

Selection strategy Rule / Case based

Process models & rules Kinematic, Compliance

Database Learning strategy, data

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Jones shipman ultramat

Jones & Shipman Ultramat

Left-Hand operator panel

Manual/ Automatic mode

Operation selection – Dress / Plunge / Traverse

Program upload / download

Linked cycle select

Z axis DRO, MPG and scale setting

Feedrate Override switch

Key enable

Cycle interrupt / repeat

Traverse hold / dwell

Z axis reverse / jog

E-stop button

Control On button

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Jones shipman ultramat1

Jones & Shipman Ultramat

Right-hand control panel

  • X axis DRO, MPG and scale setting

  • Wheelguard raise, Workhead airlift & unclamp

  • Gauge apply, Dresser raise

  • Coolant On/Off, Wheel On/Off, Workhead On/Off

  • Cycle Start/Stop

  • “Easy” Touch screen

  • Program / cycle selection

  • Data entry

  • Numeric keypad

  • Navigation

  • Operator information

  • Machine setup

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Machine control comparison

Machine control comparison

J&S 1300X – CT, bespoke

2 x Axis drives

1 x workhead drive

IO interfacing with terminal blocks

3-phase / 1 phase transformers

J&S Ultramat– Fanuc

Processor module

Axis / workhead drives

IO interfacing modules

Ethernet / RS232 / USB

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Current control hardware 1300x

Current control hardware – 1300X

4 x Axis encoder inputs

X axis, Z axis position

X axis, Z axis MPG commands

3 (4) Axis speed control outputs

X axis, Z axis speed

Workhead (C axis) speed

48 Opto-isolated digital IO

18 inputs (24)

8 outputs (24)

RS-232 interface

panel display data (out)

panel control commands (in)

Industrial PC case

Motion control card

Digital IO card

CPU card

Power supply

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Servo motion control

Servo Motion control

Servo

Drive

Motion control

Kv : Derivative Gain

Speeddem = (Posmodel –Posactual)

x Kv

Speeddem

Posactual

Posdemand

Veldemand

Velactual

Encoder

Servo Motor

Transmission

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Deva 004 x z axis setup

Deva 004 : X, Z axis setup

Z axis

PITCH = -10.0000 MAXVOLT = 3000 (2150)

COUNT = 10000.0000MAXSPEED = 60

MAXACCEL = 60

GAIN KV = 15

SPEED = 25

X axis

PITCH = -5.0000 MAXVOLT = -3000 (-3850)

COUNT = 10000.0000MAXSPEED = 60

GEARING = 1:1.29MAXACCEL = 60

GAIN KV = 45

SPEED = 50

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Initial software

Initial software

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Process cycle parameters

Process / Cycle parameters

Plunge

PlungeCoarseInfeed As Double

PlungeFineInfeed As Double

PlungeFineDia As Double

PlungeStartDia As Double

PlungeSizeDia As Double

PlungeDwell As Double

Axis

X0DatumPosition As Double

XHomePosition As Double

XZeroPosition As Double

XAbsolute As Double

Z0DatumPosition As Double

ZRevDatumPosition As Double

ZHomePosition As Double

ZAbsolute As Double

Motion

dblXMovespeed As Double

dblXRapid As Double

dblXCoarseFeedAs Double

dblXFineFeed As Double

dblXInfeed As Double

dblXInfeedRate As Double

intXDwell as Integer

dblXStartPosition As Double

dblXFinePosition As Double

dblXSizePosition As Double

dblZReversePositionL As Double

dblZReversePositionR As Double

dblZStartPosition As Double

intFROSetting As Integer

blnFeedHold As Boolean

Traverse

XCoarseInc As Double

XFineInc As Double

TraverseZFeed As Double

TraverseStartDia As Double

TraverseFineDia As Double

TraverseSizeDia As Double

Z0Dwell As Double

ZRevDwell As Double

TraversePasses

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


New components

New Components

  • Workhead servo drive

  • Industrial PC

  • Motion control card

  • Touchscreen monitor

  • Console switches / lamps

  • Cabling / connectors

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


Progress

Progress

So far.....

Reactivation of machine tool

Minor electrical modifications

Development software with “old” hardware

Familiarity with motion control package

Implementation of simple cycles

Axis configuration and movement

Specification and ordering of equipment

Initial interface design

Next steps....

Commissioning of workhead drive

Axis movement via MPGs: Incremental

Rapid

Digital IO Equipment control

Axis limits etc.

PCI motion card Cabling

Control panel

Initial demonstration software

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


And finally

And finally...

Thank you.....

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems


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