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Africa- Asia Dialogue Reflective Meeting. Malawi Presentation. An investigation into the relationship between selected donor educational inputs and rates of achievement at the basic educational level in the South West Educational Division in Malawi. A Reserch proposal By Demis Kunje

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Africa asia dialogue reflective meeting

Africa- Asia Dialogue Reflective Meeting

Malawi Presentation


A reserch proposal by demis kunje dorothy khonje nellie mbano

An investigation into the relationship between selected donor educational inputs and rates of achievement at the basic educational level in the South West Educational Division in Malawi

A Reserch proposal

By

Demis Kunje

Dorothy Khonje

Nellie Mbano


Outline of presentation

Outline of presentation

  • Introduction

  • Methodology

  • Progress so far

  • Pilot work

  • Cooperation with Kobe University

  • Challenges

  • Plan


Introduction

Introduction

  • Background

  • Statement of the problem

  • Research questions

  • Significance of the study

  • Limitations


Indicators

Indicators

Indicator

2002

GDP per capita

MK10, 500.00

Literacy rate

58%

Literacy rate male

66%

Literacy rate female

44%


Africa asia dialogue reflective meeting

Infant mortality rate (per 1000 children)

104

Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)

1120

Under 5mortality rate (per1000 live births

189

% Children under weight

30%

Fertility rate

6.1

Life expectancy

39


Africa asia dialogue reflective meeting

Basic Education

Number of teachers

45,784

Pupil to qualified teacher ratio

118

Dropout rate

12%

Repetition rate

15%

Female enrollment

48%

Pupil to specialist teacher ratio (visually impaired)

48

Number of Adults enrolled in ALC

37,500


Africa asia dialogue reflective meeting

Basic education

  • Expand concept of Basic Education

  • Decentralisation

  • Increase Basic Education Budget

  • Reduce Drop out and Repetition Rates

  • Increase Community Participation

  • Reform Assessment System

    Improve Special Needs Education


Africa asia dialogue reflective meeting

Free Primary Education 1994+

  • More children are in school following the introduction of Free Primary Education (FPE) in 1994. Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) is 132% (2004). Net Enrolment Ratio (NER) of the 6-13 year olds is, however, below 80%, but much higher than before FPE.

  • Disparities in enrolment rates between regions, districts and income groups have narrowed since introducing FPE.


Africa asia dialogue reflective meeting

  • FPE has made education popular amongst all stakeholders, the communities, CSOs, development partners, parents and Government. There is collective commitment

  • Gender disparities in enrolment rates at primary level have narrowed since introducing FPE. Up to 1990s boys’ NERs were much higher than those of girls. Now the NERs for boys and girls are almost the same.


Africa asia dialogue reflective meeting

Challenges

  • High drop out rates (12%)

  • High repetition rate (15%)

  • Low completion rate (30%)

  • In adequate teaching and learning materials

  • Poor learning environment (Some classes still being held under trees, inadequate furniture inadequate water and sanitary facilities

  • High pupil-class ratio (70:1)

  • High Qualified-pupil ratio (72:1)


Africa asia dialogue reflective meeting

Challenges (contd)

  • The impact of HIV/AIDS

  • Very high absenteeism

  • Limited access and facilities to persons with disabilities

  • Mobilisation of Funding for the sectors programmes


Statement of the problem

Statement of the problem

  • Basic education is seen as a necessary condition for development. In addition, it is seen as a right for every child. In Malawi the introduction of free primary education in 1994 resulted in increased enrollments without accompanying improvements in quality. The issue of quality is being addressed in a piecemeal way, in trickles and in an uncoordinated manner. Thus it is not known which inputs or combinations of inputs have impact on the quality of education


Research questions

Research Questions

  • What are the relationships between inputs namely infrastructure, in-service, school feeding, teaching and learning materials, community sensitization and advisory services on the one hand and the quality of basic education in terms of levels of pupil achievement on the other hand?

  • What combinations of inputs are associated with pupil achievement in mathematics, Chichewa and English in std 5 and std 7?


Research questions cont

Research questions cont.

  • How are the donor - sponsored inputs in schools utilized to improve the quality of basic education?


Significance of the study

Significance of the study

  • Understand relationships

  • Show appropriateness

  • Indicate Minimum levels of resources

  • Describe usage and management

  • Complement other studies


Limitations of the study

Limitations of the study

  • Inputs may age

  • Limitations in collecting information

  • Limited sample

  • Limited time


Some research findings

Some research findings

  • SACMEQinvestigated pupil, teacher and school factors and how they related to the achievement of minimum levels of literacy and numeracy. The main findings were that the majority of the pupils in Malawi primary schools are performing below minimum and desirable levels of reading and mathematical skills


Some research findings1

Some research findings

  • A similar study by MIE(2005) in 12 districts shows that learner achievement in four subjects at the primary school level was below expected levels and that less than 10% of the learners were adequately prepared for the next higher class they were to move into.


Some research findings2

Some research findings

  • NIPDEP(2003) showed that there were slight increases in performance in mathematics and English after JICA introduced some interventions such as infrastructure, teacher in – service and teacher support in schools


Some research findings3

Some research findings

  • PLAN(2005) report of some increases in the percentages of pupils gaining mastery in Chichewa after teachers in two districts had undergone some specific training


Prospects

Prospects

  • This shows that there is some hope that achievement can be influenced in some ways and this provides a basis for further enquiry into what best represents positive influences on achievement in the Malawian context.


Methodology

Methodology

  • Quantitative

    -Using existing Raw Data e.g SACMEQ

    -Collect data on educational inputs and achievement

  • Qualitative

    Study utilisation of resources and inputs in schools


Phase 1 relationship between inputs and achievement

DIVISION (1)

Rural(160 schools)

Unsupported

Donor supported

Urban(20 schools)

Unsupported

Donor supported

Phase 1: Relationship between inputs and achievement


Instruments

Instruments

  • School Profile

  • Achievement tests

  • Class 5 and 7

  • Mathematics, English and Chichewa


Data ananlysis

Data ananlysis

  • Descriptive statistics

  • Multi level analysis


Phase 2 how inputs are utilised

Rural

Supported

Successful

Not successful

Unsupported

Successful

Not successful

Urban

Supported

Successful

Not successful

Unsupported

Successful

Not successful

Phase 2: How inputs are utilised


Instruments and target participants

Focus

Methods

Community participation

Interviews and Focus group discussion

Management

Interviews and Focus group discussion

Teaching and learning

Observations, Interviews and Focus group discussion

In-service training

Interviews with teachers

Use of resources

Observations, Interviews and Focus group discussion

Instruments and target participants

:


Data analysis

Data analysis

  • Themes

  • Triangulation

  • Activity profiles


Progress report

Progress Report

  • Briefing Ministry of Education

  • Proposals to UNESCO and JICA

  • Seminars: MOE, Higher Education, School Community

  • Pilot Study

  • Refining Instruments


Class 5 results

Class 5 Results


Class 5 girls and boys

Class 5: Girls and boys


Class 5 correlation

Class 5: Correlation


Class 5 by school

Class 5: by school


Class 7 results

Class 7 results


Class 7 girls and boys

Class 7: Girls and boys


Correlation

Correlation


Class7 by school

Class7: by school


Schools

Schools


Cooperation with kobe university

Cooperation with Kobe University

  • Revision of Proposal

  • Testing and revision of instruments

  • Collecting data

  • Analysis of existing raw data ( training)

  • Collection and data analysis

  • Planning for qualitative study


Challenges

Challenges

  • Funding


Plans

Plans

  • Collect data in South West Education Division

  • Analyse SACMEQ data

  • Do qualitative Study

  • Disseminate information to stakeholders


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