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DRUNK DRIVING: GAINING GROUND THROUGH THE USE OF SOCIAL MARKETING. Michael Rothschild School of Business University of Wisconsin-Madison POP Conference September 25, 2006. TODAY’S AGENDA. Developing a conceptual base What is social marketing?

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Drunk driving gaining ground through the use of social marketing

DRUNK DRIVING: GAINING GROUND THROUGH THE USE OF SOCIAL MARKETING

Michael Rothschild

School of Business

University of Wisconsin-Madison

POP Conference

September 25, 2006


Today s agenda
TODAY’S AGENDA

Developing a conceptual base

What is social marketing?

How does it relate to problem oriented policing?

Applying the concepts to practice

Alcohol impaired driving (AID)


Two quotes to inspire your thinking
TWO QUOTES TO INSPIRE YOUR THINKING

“Role of government is to create opportunity; role of citizen is to seize opportunity”

“Organize policy and strategy so that self interest does what the community requires”


Public safety behavior management
PUBLIC SAFETY BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT

Three major classes of strategic tools:

Education / Communications / Messages

Environmental Change / Social Marketing / Situational Prevention / Problem Oriented Policing/ Outreach

Enforcement / Force of law


A bit of comparison social marketing and problem oriented policing
A BIT OF COMPARISON: SOCIAL MARKETING AND PROBLEM ORIENTED POLICING

POP: Increase the barriers for, and reduce the rewards of, the behavior to be reduced

Social Marketing: Increase the benefits of and reduce the barriers inhibiting the behavior to be increased


Underlying issues that drive social marketing
UNDERLYING ISSUES THAT DRIVE SOCIAL MARKETING POLICING

Customer Focus

Customer Disconnects

Customer Accommodation


Customer focus
CUSTOMER FOCUS POLICING

Self interest

Free choice

Power

Competition


Commercial and public safety issues are fundamentally different
COMMERCIAL AND POLICINGPUBLIC SAFETY ISSUES ARE FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT

Commercial marketing appeals to immediate self interest

Public safety campaigns often ask for:

Behavior that is opposite of self interest

And may be opposite of current behavior

And may never clearly benefit the person


Public safety issues are fundamentally different
PUBLIC SAFETY ISSUES ARE FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT POLICING

Commercial marketing acknowledges:

Consumer has free choice

Consumer has power

Competition in the marketplace

Public safety campaigns often neglect:

The power residing in the consumer

The competition inherent in free choice


Customer disconnects and segmentation
CUSTOMER DISCONNECTS POLICINGAND SEGMENTATION

A continuum of targets

Stages of change

Motivation, opportunity and ability


Segmenting on willingness to behave

Resistant to Behave as Desired POLICING

Prone to Behave as Desired

Unable to Behave as Desired

Easy to See or Convey Self Interest

Can’t See and Can’t Convey Self Interest or Benefits

Need to See and Receive Benefits

Education

EnvirnmntMarketing

Enforcement

No/weak competition

Passive/activeCompetition

Unmanageable competition

SEGMENTING ON WILLINGNESS TO BEHAVE



Segmenting on motivation opportunity ability
SEGMENTING ON MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, ABILITY POLICING

Behavior = f (M, O, A)

Motivation:

Self interest

Group norms

Opportunity

Environment allows behavior

Add benefits

Remove barriers

Provide incentives

Ability

Skills and proficiency


M POLICINGOTIVATION

yes

no

yes

no

no

yes

OPPORTUNITY

ABILITY

yes

no


M POLICINGOTIVATION

yes

no

yes

no

no

yes

OPPORTUNITY

ABILITY

prone to behave

unable to behave

resistant to behave

resistant to behave

yes

education

marketing

enforce

marketing enforce

unable to behave

unable to behave

resistant to behave

resistant to behave

no

educationmarketing

educationmarketing

educationmarketingenforce

educationmarketingenforce


Customer accomodation
CUSTOMER ACCOMODATION POLICING

Increase benefits

Decrease barriers

Making it fun, easy, popular

Fitting into the daily hassles of life

Helping those unable to behave


Commercial and public safety issues are fundamentally different1
COMMERCIAL AND POLICINGPUBLIC SAFETY ISSUES ARE FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT

Commercial marketing recognizes

People’s desire for fun, easy, popular…

Easy: fitting in with daily hassles

Public safety campaigns often focus on:

Long term issues

Stop doing what is fun, easy, popular

Add a new hassle into hectic life


Commercial and public safety issues are fundamentally different2
COMMERCIAL AND POLICINGPUBLIC SAFETY ISSUES ARE FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT

Commercial marketing recognizes

People’s inability to behave as they wish

Public safety campaigns often neglect:

Environmental barriers

Difficulty in behaving

Disconnect between AWARENESS, ATTITUDE, and BEHAVIOR

Disconnect between MOTIVATION and BEHAVIOR


What is marketing
WHAT IS MARKETING? POLICING

…Creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers…

…Managing customer relationships…

…Benefiting the organization and its shareholders.

(American Marketing Association 2004)

--also--

Achieving our goals by meeting the needs of others and providing benefit to those others.


Reducing alcohol impaired drinking
REDUCING ALCOHOL IMPAIRED DRINKING POLICING

The Goals:

To reduce alcohol related crashes by 5%

To be self sustaining after one year

To demonstrate the value of social marketing


Social marketing plan
SOCIAL MARKETING PLAN POLICING

Talk to expert observers

Talk to target

Create toolbox of ideas

Take toolbox into several communities

Become a local force

Create local coalitions

Develop, market, advertise products

Observe the outcome


Developmental research
DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH POLICING

7 focus groups with expert observers

11 focus groups with target

Describing 21-34 single men

What are they looking for?

Why do they drink?

Why do they drive after drinking?

Why don’t they drive after drinking?

Decision making processes of target

In sum: Benefits, barriers, change behavior


3 cs of marketing
3 Cs OF MARKETING POLICING

Customer

Competition

Company


Developmental research1
DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH POLICING

The target (Customer)

Primarily 21-34 single guys, rural

Blue collar and farm worker

High AW and positive ATT re issues

Competition has huge market share

“I can drive myself home”

Often no alternative way to get home

Negative: lots of worry late in evening

Our product capabilities (Company)

A ride service unique to each community


Why do they drink
WHY DO THEY DRINK? POLICING

It’s what you do; to get drunk

Impress friends with drinking ability

Escape the reality of daily problems

Overcome fear, inhibitions

Let’s them become someone else


Why do they drive after drinking
WHY DO THEY DRIVE POLICINGAFTER DRINKING?

To get home

Don’t want to leave car behind

Hassle to get back to car in morning

Alternatives are not available

Social pressure; everybody does it

To be cool

Unaware of impairment; become fearless

Low risk of getting caught; weak enforcement


A few other key findings
A FEW OTHER KEY FINDINGS POLICING

Different phases of evening

To bar, between bars, back home

Get target to bar without car

Vehicles need to be appealing, cool

Willing to pay for service


Brief sketch of program
BRIEF SKETCH OF PROGRAM POLICING

Rides to, between and home from bars

Desirable vehicles and allow drinking

Reasonable, but self sustaining fees

Each community:

Begins with our research and strategy

Develops unique program for community


Partnerships and coalitions
PARTNERSHIPS AND COALITIONS POLICING

Public: NHTSA; WisDOT

Private: Miller Brewing; Tavern League

Community:

community leaders and local govt

local media

local law enforcement

local bar owners and staff

public health workers

advisory board of target members


View video here it can be found at www roadcrewonline org
(view video here; it can be found at POLICINGwww.roadcrewonline.org )


Observing the outcome
OBSERVING THE OUTCOME POLICING

Phone survey

Post test only in treatment communities

Awareness, attitudes, and perceptions

General population, target, city leaders, bar workers

Sales record

Each ride is potential alcohol related crash

Count rides versus crashes, OWI, injuries, or deaths

Bar coupon survey

Pre and post test

Treatment and control group

Admitting drinking and driving w/ anonymity


Some 1 st year results
SOME 1 POLICINGST YEAR RESULTS

High AW and favorable ATT

BEH: ~20,000 rides in three communities

Est. 17% crash decline from previous year

No increase in individual consumption

Fewer incidents per two week period

Cost per crash: $56,000

Cost per crash avoided: $15,000


3 years later
3 YEARS LATER POLICING

2 of 3 communities are self sustaining

We’ve become part of local culture

>45,000 rides given

New funding for 3 more communities

>4,500 rides given

Will add 3 communities each year

See website for details and video

WWW.ROADCREWONLINE.ORG


The example fits the concepts part 1
THE EXAMPLE FITS POLICINGTHE CONCEPTS (PART 1)

Self interest: need to drink, but not to drive

Little power: laws are weak or not enforced

Competition: impaired driving is acceptable

AW, ATT but no BEH: want to behave, but unable to do so


The example fits the concepts part 2
THE EXAMPLE FITS POLICINGTHE CONCEPTS (PART 2)

MOTIVATION, but no OPPORTUNITY or ABILITY: want to behave, but unable to do so

Increase benefits: fun and easy; party without worry

Decrease barriers: unavailable and uncool

Fit into life: rides to, between, and home

Creating and delivering value: new product


7 ideas to build better public safety managers through marketing
7 IDEAS TO BUILD BETTER PUBLIC SAFETY MANAGERS THROUGH MARKETING

Accommodate self interest

Accommodate competitive marketplace

Accommodate our lack of power

Create benefits

Reduce barriers

Make benefits accessible

Fit into daily processes and hassles of life


And remember
… AND, REMEMBER… MARKETING

People are rational

They make their own best decisions

Within their own view of world

We need to understand these views

And the processes leading to decisions

We need to accommodate these views

We do this by listening

We do this with local coalitions


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