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Wales- Cymru. Identity and nationalism. Wales (2)-Modern Period. Growth in Welsh nationalism and national consciousness. 1936-the burning of the bombing school in Penyberth. (Saunders Lewis, D.J.Williams, Lewis Valentine). Wales- Cymru. After survival- growth. Wales-Cymru.

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Wales- Cymru

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Wales- Cymru

Identity and nationalism


Wales (2)-Modern Period

  • Growth in Welsh nationalism and national consciousness.

  • 1936-the burning of the bombing school in Penyberth. (Saunders Lewis, D.J.Williams, Lewis Valentine).


Wales- Cymru

After survival- growth


Wales-Cymru

  • 1536 Act of Union

  • 1546 First printed book in Welsh.

  • 1567 Translation of Prayer Book and New Testament into Welsh.

  • 1588: Translation of the whole Bible into Welsh- its influence.


William Morgan and translation of Bible into Welsh


Wales -Modern Period

  • 1707 Edward Lhuyd’s Archaeologia Britannica. Beginnings of Celtic Studies.

  • Mid 18th century- the beginnings of Welsh non-conformity. Howel Harris. Rejection of Anglicanism.

  • 1737-61: the circulating schools of Griffith Jones

  • 1743 The Methodist Association in Wales


Welsh Chapels


Wales

  • Beginnings of industrialisation in Wales 1757.

  • Iron works,

  • coal-mining,

  • tin works.

  • Dowlais,

  • Merthyr Tudful,


Collier and pit-pony


Wales -Modern Period

  • Beginnings of industrialization in Wales:

  • The first iron-works in 1757 in Hirwaun, south Wales.

  • The centre of Welsh culture and history shifts to the south-east, the iron works and then the coal industry.


Wales (2)-Modern Period

  • Wales had by then (late 18th century and 19th century) become a non-conformist Protestant nation, largely Welsh-speaking (only) and for most of the population living in an industrialized environment (after 1860).


The Methodist Revival

  • Key names: Howell Harris, Daniel Rowlands and the most prominent: William Williams Pantycelyn. (often just called Pantycelyn).

  • Methodism in Wales was a break with Anglicanism (not officially until the early 19th century). It was an evangelical form of Protestantism inspired by the works of Calvin.


The Methodist Revival

  • Pantycelyn was a great writer of religious poems (we would call them hymns) still popular today.

  • Another great eighteenth century Welsh religious writer was Ann Griffiths (1776-1805), who died shortly after childbirth at the early age of 29.

  • Following her death her hymns were written down by her maid’s husband. They are love-songs, full of vividimages and meatphors, reflecting a deep knowledge of the Bible and the beliefs of the Non-conformists (all the non-Anglican versions of Protestantism).


The Methodist Revival

  • By the nineteenth century, Welsh Nonconformity was no longer a radical force in religious terms, but rathera social force and institution that dominated Welsh all aspects of Welsh culture.

  • Religious leaders were now the leaders of society in Wales and they disapproved of the older folk culture of Wales.


Rediscovering roots: Iolo Morgannwg

  • Iolo Morgannwg (1747-1826) was a prolific poet and keen promoter of ancient Welsh history.

  • He claimed to have ‘discovered’ many poems by the 14th century poet Dafydd ap Gwilym in local manuscripts but they were many invented.

  • He felt that Glamorganshire, his placeplace, deserved a rich literary history, and so he partly invented it!


Wales -Modern Period

  • First census in Wales 1801- population of Wales 587,000.

  • Separation of Welsh Methodists from the Church of England (Anglicans).

  • Merthyr Riots 1831. Beginnings of unionisation.

  • Rebecca Riots 1839-44.


Wales (2)-Modern Period

  • 1865- a contingent of Welsh people leave for Patagonia in Argentina, founding the still existing and thriving Welsh settlements in South America.

  • 1872 –The University of Wales opens (in Aberystwyth).


University of Wales, Aberystwyth


CYMRU/WALES (4)


Wales -Modern Period

  • 1886- the Cymru Fydd movement is founded.

  • 1898-the foundation of the South Wales Miners’ Federation. The ‘FED’.

  • 1916-Lloyd George becomes first Welsh prime-minister of the UK.

  • 1925 Plaid Cymru is founded. The National Party of Wales.


Wales -Modern Period

  • Growth in Welsh nationalism and national consciousness.

  • 1936-the burning of the bombing school in Penyberth. (Saunders Lewis, D.J.Williams, Lewis Valentine).


Wales -Modern Period

  • Saunders Lewis”s Fate of the Language” radio lecture in 1962.

  • 1962- the formation of the Welsh Language Society (non-violent pressure group, civil disobedience).


The Trefechan Bridge Protest1963


Wales -Modern Period

  • Period of civil disobedience by members of the Welsh Language Society. Two major campaigns:

    • Road signs in Welsh.

    • The creation of a Welsh-language television channel.

    • http://cymdeithas.org/english/


Tryweryn- 1963-5


Gwynfor Evans


Wales -Modern Period

  • 1964-Creation of the Welsh Office, and James Griffiths appointed first Secretary of State for Wales.

  • 1967-first Welsh Language Act.(‘equal status’in law-courts)

  • 1973-Kilbrandon Commission recommends creation of regional parliament for Wales.


Wales -Modern Period

  • Period of civil disobedience by members of the Welsh Language Society. Two major campaigns:

    • Road signs in Welsh.

    • The creation of a Welsh-language television channel.


Wales -Modern Period

  • 1979- first referendum on Welsh parliament (assembly).

  • 1982-Welsh-language television channel (S4C) set up.

  • 1988- creation of the Welsh language board as a consultative body.


Wales -Modern Period

  • 1991- census reveals increase in numbers of those able to speak Wales.

  • 1993-Second Welsh Language Act passed.

  • 1999 – Welsh National Assembly opens in Cardiff.

  • 2011- Appointment of first Language Commissioner


Second referendum

  • In July 1997, the British Government published a White Paper, A Voice for Wales, which outlined proposals for devolution in Wales.

  • A referendum was held on 18 September 1997. It was very close: 559,419 for and 552,698 against. Just over half the electorate voted.


The National Assembly for Wales

  • The establishment of the national Assembly for Wales in May 1999 changed the nature of politics in Wales by creating a new style of government in which decisions and policies were focused on Wales.

  • Wales remains part of the UK.

  • New powers.


Welsh Assembly (in Cardiff)


Y Senedd


National Assembly for Wales


The National Assembly for Wales

  • The establishment of the National Assembly for Wales in May 1999 changed the nature of politics in Wales by creating a new style of government in which decisions and policies were focused on Wales.

  • Wales remains part of the UK.

  • New powers.

  • http://www.assemblywales.org/sen-home.htm


Wales -Modern Period

  • 1991- census reveals increase in numbers of those able to speak Wales. How?

  • 1993-Second Welsh Language Act passed.

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_Language_Act_1993


The 1993 Language Act

  • 'in the course of public business and the administration of justice, so far as is reasonably practicable, the Welsh and English languages are to be treated on the basis of equality.'

  • Basically the Act did three things:

  • set up the Welsh Language Board, answerable to the Secretary of State for Wales, with the duty of promoting the use of Welsh and ensuring compliance with the other provisions.

  • gave Welsh speakers the right to speak Welsh in court proceedings

  • obliged all organisations in the public sector providing services to the public in Wales to treat Welsh and English on an equal basis


New Language Act 2011

  • LCO (Legislative Competence Order)

  • Proposed new measure on the Welsh Language had been expected by summer 2010.

  • http://www.assemblywales.org/lco-ld7372-e.pdf


Second referendum

  • In July 1997, the British Government published a White Paper, A Voice for Wales, which outlined proposals for devolution in Wales.

  • A referendum was held on 18 September 1997. It was very close: 559,419 for and 552,698 against. Just over half the electorate voted.


Y Senedd


National Assembly for Wales


The National Assembly for Wales

  • The establishment of the National Assembly for Wales in May 1999 changed the nature of politics in Wales by creating a new style of government in which decisions and policies were focused on Wales.

  • Wales remains part of the UK.

  • New powers.

  • http://www.assemblywales.org/sen-home.htm


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