The civil war
1 / 67

The Civil War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The Civil War. Ch. 11. April 1861: Confederates fire on Ft. Sumter…Civil War begins!! North Advantages Larger population Industrial/agricultural capacity Transportation network 2.1 million soldiers Naval advantage. The South 900,000 soldiers Unstable finances

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

The Civil War

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

The Civil War

Ch. 11

  • April 1861: Confederates fire on Ft. Sumter…Civil War begins!!

  • North Advantages

    • Larger population

    • Industrial/agricultural capacity

    • Transportation network

    • 2.1 million soldiers

    • Naval advantage

  • The South

    • 900,000 soldiers

    • Unstable finances

    • Financed 60% of the $1.5 billion spent on war printing money and inflation.

  • The Union Solider

    • Blue Uniform

  • The Confederate Solider

    • Grey Uniform

  • Confederate president Jefferson Davis (former senator of Mississippi) had to build a government from square one (during a war).

  • Lincoln already had an established government, a standing army, stable financial resources, and excellent relations with Europe.

  • The Southerners saw themselves as the only true heirs of the American Revolution and the true defenders of the American Constitution.

  • President Davis needed to give the South a vision for their future.

  • Northerners needed a convincing reason to fight.

  • Lincoln overall was a better leader; he handled disagreement better, used humor to diffuse tense situations, had eloquence, and was a man of the people.

More States Secede

  • Virginia was not willing to fight against the Southern states.

    • Seceded from the Union on April 7, 1861.

    • Western Virginia was anti-slavery; seceded from Virginia and became West Virginia in 1863.

  • Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee quickly followed after Virginia.

    • Seceded in May 1861

  • Maryland was vital to the Union, because of its close proximity to Washington D.C.

  • Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri remained part of the Union.

The Strategies…

  • The Union

    • Anaconda Plan

      • The Union navy would blockage southern port so they couldn’t export cotton, nor import much needed manufactured goods.

      • Union riverboats and armies would move down the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy in two.

      • Union armies would capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia.

  • The South

    • Survival of the fittest

    • Attack, Attack, Attack!!

    • Invade the North if necessary

  • They only had to fight a strong battle on their own territory until Northern opposition forced the Union to give up.

  • Problems with this strategy

    • Required more patience than the South had (attach on Ft. Sumter showed that).

    • Southern resources might give out before the war might end.

The Early War

  • First Battle of Bull Run

    • July 21, 1861 Beauregard (Confederacy) and McDowell (Union) meet at Manassas (20 miles SW of Washington D.C)

    • Confederate troops take down a string Union army.

    • Colonel Thomas J. Jackson earns his name “Stonewall Jackson.”

  • Confederate victory at Bull Run boosted the South’s confidence.

War in the West

  • Confederate forts, Ft. Henry on the Tennessee River and Ft. Donelson on the Cumberland River guarded strategic waterways that connected Tennessee and Kentucky to the Mississippi Valley.

  • Forts also defended Nashville (Tennessee’s capital)

Fort Henry

Fort Donelson

  • February 1862, Ulysses S. Grant (Union General) put together a land and river attack against both forts, which caught the unprepared Southerners off guard.

  • By February 16, 1862 both forts fell.

  • This Union victory closed off the South’s path to the West from Virginia and the Carolinas.

  • The Confederacy never regained strategic advantage in the West.


  • March 1862

  • Grant and his men gathered near small Tennessee church (Shiloh).

  • However, Grant did not post enough guards on patrol.

  • Confederate forces came charging in from the woods and attacked.

  • That night, Grant called in reinforcements, reorganized his men and the following morning attacked Confederate forces.

  • By mid-afternoon April 7, Confederate forces retreated.

  • Grant’s next move was to attack the main Mississippi port and the rail center of Vicksburg.

  • David G. Farragut was a 60 year old Admiral took his fleet past enemy fire and 5 days later the U.S. flag flew over New Orleans.

  • Over the next two month, Farragut took control of Baton Rouge and Natchez.

War in the East

  • With Grant taking care of shutting down the Confederacy in the West, Lincoln shifted his focus on Richmond.

  • Appointed General George B. McClellan to lead the Army of the Potomac.


  • Robert E. Lee (Confederate General)

    • Modest and willing to go beyond military textbook tactics

    • Opposed secession

    • Freed his slaves

    • Declined offer to head Union army

    • Wanted to stay faithful to Virginia

  • Seven Days’ Battles

    • June 25 – July 1, 1862

  • Lee’s determination and unorthodox tactics forced McClellan to back away and head down the peninsula towards the sea.

  • Three Thousand men were killed or wounded on both the Union and Confederate sides.

Turning Points

  • Union naval blockade strengthened as the war continued.

  • South loses its ability to continue trade, raise money for war needs, and from cash crops leaving the South.

  • Restriction of trade hurt the Southern cause.

The Trent Incident

  • James Mason and John Slidell (Confederate diplomats) illegally travelled aboard a British merchant ship (the Trent).

  • Captain Charles Wilkes (Captain of the San Jacinto) arrested the two men.

  • Britain thought they were Union diplomats and prepared to wage war against the United States.

  • Lincoln set the two prisoners free, therefore stopping war from starting.

The Alabama claims

  • Britain did not recognize the Confederacy, but sold them ships to use against the Union.

  • Alabama ship sank or captured 64 American merchant vessels before it sank.

  • United States gives Britain the $19 million bill in damages, which Britain ignored.

  • In 1872, the United States and Britain came to an agreement and Britain paid the U.S. $15.5 million .


  • Bloodiest single day of fighting in U.S. History.

  • 2,100 Union soldiers and 2,700 Confederate soldiers died.

  • 18, 500 other Union and Confederate soldiers were wounded.


  • President Lincoln hated slavery, but his war priority was to keep the Union together.

  • Lincoln said during this inauguration he had “no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists”.

  • However, as the war continued Lincoln was getting more and more pressure from Northern civilians, Union soldiers, and Congress to emancipate slavery.

  • The Republican Congress decided to prohibit slavery in the territories and abolish slavery in D.C.

  • Due to the emancipation of slavery, the district’s slaves called for compensating slave owners and colonizing the freed slaves in Black republics such as Haiti and Liberia.

  • In July 1862, the Conscription Act ordered the seizure of land from disloyal Southerners and the emancipation of their slaves.

  • Emancipation Proclamation announced by President Lincoln on September 1862, would free slaves in all Confederate states still in rebellion started January 1, 1863.

  • Slaves in the border states loyal to the Union and in areas under Federal occupation were exempt from the proclamation.

  • The Emancipation unified the Republican Party and strengthened Lincoln’s hand in conducting the war.

  • The 1862 Conscription Act included slaves with the other Confederate property as the “contraband” of war and subject to confiscation.

  • After 1863, former slaves served in increasing numbers in the Union army.

  • More than 80% of about 180,000 black soldiers and 20,000 black sailors who fought in the Union were slaves and free black men from the South.

  • Even though black soldiers were able to fight just as well as white soldiers, blacks were paid less and performed most of the menial duties of the camp.

  • The most celebrated black encounter with Confederate troops occurred July 1863 during an assault by the 54th Massachusetts Regiment on Ft. Wagner outside Charleston, SC.

  • The Northern press praised the black troops for their efforts.

  • Both Union and Confederate women cared for the sick and wounded.

  • In 1861, members of the U.S. Sanitary Commission voluntarily came together and attempted to upgrade medical and hospital care.

  • Even when soldiers escaped death on the battlefield and in the hospital, they often died from disease.

  • Twice as many soldiers died from disease than from battle during the Civil War.

  • Common diseases were typhoid and venereal diseases.

  • Typhoid is causes by salmonella (contaminated water).

  • Symptoms – fever, loss of appetite, diarrhea, tired, aches and pains, severe chest congestion.

  • Most soldiers turned to religion to help console them.

  • Soldiers responded to the danger of war in different ways

    • Yelling loudly

    • Uncontrollable shaking

    • Strained relations between enlisted soldiers and officers

    • Heavy chores

    • Incessant drills

    • Boredom

  • Women cooked, cleaned, did laundry and provided sexual services.

From Fredericksburg to Gettysburg

  • After Antietam, Lincoln replaced General McClellan with General Ambrose Burnside.

  • Burnside rushed to beat General Lee’s army in Northern Virginia, reaching the Rappahannock River opposite Fredericksburg in November 1862.

  • On December 13, 1862, Burnside and the Union army launched a foolish frontal assault on the Confederate army.

  • Heavy Federal casualties led to Burnside being replaced by Major General Joseph Hooker.

  • Hooker was just as incompetent as Burnside.

  • From May 1 to May 4, Lee’s army delivered a series of crushing attacks on Hooker’s forces at Chancellorsville.

  • Just after this series of attacks, nervous Confederate troops mistakenly shot and wounded Stonewall Jackson on his return from a mission.

  • He died a few days later.

  • However, the greatest battle of the war started near Gettysburg.

  • Day 1 of battle

    • Confederates forced Union troops back from the town to Cemetery Hill.

  • Day 2 of battle

    • Confederates took several key locations along Cemetery Ridge before Union troops pushed them back to their previous positions.

  • Day 3 of battle

    • Lee’s fateful mistake

    • As the Confederate infantry marched out for battle, the Union artillery and Federal riflemen tore apart the Southerners,

  • July 4, one day after Gettysburg, Vicksburg the last major Confederate strong hold on the Mississippi surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant.

  • Grant devised a brilliant plan to take Vicksburg calling for rapid maneuvering and expert coordination

  • Grant had his twenty-thousand Union troops ferried across the Mississippi from the Louisiana side of Vicksburg.

  • On May 22, 1863, Grant settled down in front of the city and cut it off completely.

  • Many native American tribes in the Trans-Mississippi West spent much of the war battling Federal troops for more territory and resources.

War Transforms the North

  • President Lincoln began using his executive authority by ordering the seizure of telegrams to intercept messages to the South.

  • Lincoln also suspended the writ of habeas corpus (the constitutional requirement that protects a defendant against illegal imprisonment).

  • This suspension allowed authorities to hold suspects indefinitely and was permitted by the Constitution “when in cases of Rebellion or invasion the public safety”.

  • Copperheads were Northern democrats who were suspected of aiding the Confederate cause during the war.

  • Radical Republicanswere a small group that favored the abolishment of slavery at the beginning of the war then advocated harsh treatment of the defeated South.

  • Homestead Actwas passed by Congress in May of 1862, providing 160 acres of free land to settlers in exchange for improving that land within five years.

  • Land Grant College Actwas passed by Congress in July of 1862 awarding proceeds from the sale of public lands to the states for the establishment of agricultural and mechanical colleges.


  • In 1862, the Confederacy passed a conscription law; In 1863, the Union did the same.

    • South- ALL able-bodied white men, ages 18-35. Wealthy draftees hired substitute soldiers to serve in their place; planters w/ 20 or more slaves were exempt from the draft.

    • North – Ages 20-45; allowed draftees to hire substitute soldiers; could pay $300 to avoid draft altogether.

      • Bounties – cash payment to volunteers

      • 46,000 soldiers went into army, 87,000 paid the ‘300 to avoid the draft, 118,000 provided substitute soldiers.

      • 92% of the Union army out of 2 million were volunteers

Draft Riots

  • July 13-16

  • Worst draft riot occurred in New York City, when mostly Irish mobs protesting conscription burned the federal marshal’s headquarters.

  • Racial and class antagonisms fueled the riots by fighting police and attaching homes owned by the wealthy, lynching 11 African Americans, and burned down a black orphanage.

  • Over 100 people died

The Northern Economy

  • Despite the war, the Northern economy grew stronger.

  • High tariffs and massive federal spending made up for the loss of Southern markets and the closing of the Mississippi River.

  • Railroads were the most profitable businesses.

Northern Women and War

  • Over 100,000 women took jobs working in factories. Sewing rooms and arsenals during the Civil War.

  • Women also took over serving as nurses, which use to be job dominated by men.

  • Women were also left widowed and financially devastated.

  • Clara Barton was one of the most notable nurses during the war.

  • 1st women to work at U.S. Patent Office.

The Confederacy Disintegrates

  • Southerners started to turn on each other.

  • President Davis did not have party loyalty like Lincoln, because there was no party affiliation in the Confederacy.

  • The South had totally run out of resources to continue fighting.

  • People ate rats and mules to supplement their diets.

  • During the war women and children who were left behind used rags and newspaper to line their clothes to keep warm in the winter.

  • Confederate money was worthless.

Southern women and war

  • As the war continued, Southern women took on more work at home and in the workplace.

  • Some women served as nurses and even spies.

  • Towards the end of the war, many women helped their husbands escape from the Confederacy.

  • Religious women blamed God for destroying the South, not the Union.

The Union Prevails

  • March of 1864, Lincoln names General Grant as commander of all Union armies.

  • Grant’s Plan to end the war

    • Directed Union armies to Virginia and Lower South to attack on all front simultaneously.

    • Waged nonstop warfare

  • Overall, Grant’s plan worked but at a high cost.

  • Election of 1864

    • McClellan (D) V. Lincoln (R)

    • Republican victory

    • Thirteenth Amendment – 1865 that freed slaves throughout the United States.

  • Sherman’s March

    • Sherman took Atlanta, promising to break Confederate resistance for the last time by marching his army to the sea and destroying everything in its path.

    • March too place on November 15, 1864

    • Sixty thousand men encountered little resistance.

  • Sherman’s March ended in March of 1865, in Goldsboro, NC.

  • Behind Sherman and his army lay 425 miles of barren land from Savannah to Goldsboro.

  • On March 13, 1865, the Confederate Congress passed a bill to enlist black soldiers without a provision offering them freedom.

  • However, President Davis promised immediate freedom to those who enlisted.

  • April 1, 1865, Lee was forced to abandon Petersburg and Richmond.

  • Grant stopped Lee’s escape at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, on April 7.

  • April 9, Lee surrendered and Grant let Lee’s men go home unmolested.

  • April 14, 1865 Lincoln went to Ford’s Theatre to see the comedy “Our American Cousin.”

  • During the performance Booth shot and wounded Lincoln.

  • Union soldiers tracked down Booth and killed him.

  • There were mixed emotions about the assassination

  • Login