Definitions and Nomenclature. Pulsatile FlowStenosisThroatSystoleDiastole. Scale. Diameter of an ArteryAorta ~ 25 mmCapillary ~ 8
Turbulent Arterial Flows
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“Most flows are turbulent. Laminar flow is the exception.”
The body likes laminar flow.
Turbulent flow reduces pressure and causes head loss.
How Bad is Bad?
Abdominal Aortic ~ 15,000 deaths per year in the US.
Replacement of Blood Vessels
Must be the same size
Not engineers. Not necessarily content, but have sufficient knowledge to know turbulence is not a good thing.
One more area that needs to be advanced to the point where a model is reliable enough to predict the laminar-turbulent transition and the turbulent blood flow regime.
Ku, David N. “Blood Flow in Arteries.” Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. 1997. 29:399-434.
Taylor, C.A., Hughes, T.J.R., Zarins, C.K. “Finite Element Modeling of Three Dimensional Pulsatile Flow in the Abdominal Aorta: Relevance to Atherosclerosis. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 1998. 26:975-987.
Yellin, E.L., “Laminar-Turbulent Transition Process in Pulsatile Flow.” Circulation Research, 1966. XIX:791-804.
Younis, B.A., Berger, S.A. “ A Turbulence Model for Pulsatile Arterial Flows.” ASME. 2004. 126:578-584.