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Solutions. Solutions. Definition: Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase. Like Dissolves Like (i.e. nonpolar molecules dissolve in nonpolar molecules) Solid mixtures: alloys (brass, sterling silver) Liquid mixtures: alcohol & water Gas mixtures: air. Other Terms.

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solutions1
Solutions
  • Definition: Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase.
  • Like Dissolves Like (i.e. nonpolar molecules dissolve in nonpolar molecules)
    • Solid mixtures: alloys (brass, sterling silver)
    • Liquid mixtures: alcohol & water
    • Gas mixtures: air
other terms
Other Terms
  • Soluble: capable of dissolving
  • Insoluble: incapable of dissolving
  • Miscible: 2 liquids dissolve into each other
  • Immiscible: 2 liquids do not dissolve into each other
  • Solubility: how much of a given solute a certain solvent can dissolve at a certain temperature & pressure
components of solutions
Components of Solutions
  • Solute: is dissolved by the solvent.
    • Found in lesser quantities
    • May be electrolytes (conduct electricity) or non-electrolytes (does not conduct electricity)
  • Solvent: does the dissolving
    • Water is the universal solvent
    • http://www.dlt.ncssm.edu/TIGER/chem2.htm#stoich
rates of dissolving
Rates of Dissolving

Rate of dissolving may speed up due to the following:

  • Increased Surface Area: breaking the solute up into smaller pieces
  • Increased Stirring: increases particle collisions
  • Heating: particles move faster = more collisions.
solubility
Solubility
  • Varies with temperature
    • Solids & Liquids: Temp ↑, solubility ↑
    • Gases: Temp ↑, solubility ↓
  • Henry’s Law: Solubility of a gas in liquid is directly proportional to pressure
solubility1
Solubility
  • Saturated: The maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved into a solvent.
  • Unsaturated: less than the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved.
  • Supersaturated: More dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature
    • Must be heated, then cooled slowly
    • Very unstable
solubility curve
Solubility Curve
  • The lines represent the different saturation points for different compounds
  • Notice, the solubilities are measured in g/100 g H2O
  • Under the line is unsaturated, over the line is supersaturated
solution concentration
Solution Concentration
  • The concentration of a solution is measured in Molarity (M)
  • M = moles / liter
  • M = mol/L
    • (moles of solute per liters of solution)
  • Diluting solutions:
  • M1V1 = M2V2
practice problems
Practice Problems
  • You have 3.50 L of solution that contains 90.0 g of NaCl. What is the molarity of this solution? Answer: 0.44 M
  • You have 0.8 L of a 0.5 M HCl solution. How many moles of HCl are present?
  • Answer: 0.4 mol HCl
  • What volume of 3.00 M NaCl is needed for a reaction that requires 146.3 g of NaCl?
  • Answer: 0.834 L
dilutions practice problems
Dilutions Practice Problems
  • You want to make 2.3 L of a 3.5 M H2SO4 solution. If you only have 12 M sulfuric acid in stock, how much must be added to water to make the solution you need?
  • Answer:
  • In lab you produce 2.5 L of 6 M HNO3. If you added 0.5 L of a concentrated solution to get this solution, what was the original concentration of the acid?
molality
Molality:
  • Another way to measure concentration.
  • Moles of solute per kilogram of solvent

m = mol / kg

  • Notice: solvent must be in kg!
  • Example: A solution was prepared by dissolving 17.1 g of sucrose (C12H22O11) in 125 g of water. Find the molal concentration.
  • Answer: 0.400 m
molality examples
Molality Examples
  • A solution of I2 in CCl4 is used when iodine is needed for certain chemical tests. How much iodine must be aded to prepare a 0.480 m solution of iodine in CCl4 if 100.0 g of CCl4 is used?
  • Answer: 12.2 g of I2
  • What is the molality of a solution composed of 255 g (CH3)2CO dissolved in 200. g of water?
  • Answer: 22 m
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